Designs for Testing a Change

A test design is the arrangement of the changes being tested and the people or things on which the changes will be tested (people, manufacturing runs, primary care clinics) in the test. Designs of various types can be used within a PDSA Cycle. The individual or team involved in testing a change should select a level of formality and complexity relevant to their situation.
The test designs introduced in this section are:
1. Observational
2. Before-and-after
3. Time series
4. Factorial
These designs are widely applicable and occupy the midrange of formality and complexity. More advanced test designs are beyond the scope of this chapter. Many books are available for further study of more advanced designs.

Observational ...

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