8Ecosystems and Strategies

All the success of an operation resides in its preparation.

Sun Tzu, The Art of War, 6th century BC

8.1. Introduction

Strategy is defined as a coordinated set of actions that respond to the objectives, goals and purposes of the actors [WHI 17]. It is rooted in open innovation to overcome the limits of in-house1 innovation, which is not sustainable in the context of disruptive innovation. This calls for complex technologies [BAR 19] and knowledge that cannot be mastered by the actors of a single organization.

While the effects of this strategy are undeniable, it presents certain inconsistencies that stem from the assimilation of the innovation ecosystem to the business ecosystem. Here, the efforts and results of scientific and technological ecosystems are not accounted for. These strategies, aiming to meet the challenges of innovation and the way in which actors build a competitive advantage, remain poorly understood.

This chapter aims to shed light on these misunderstandings and bring coherence to collaborative strategies. To do this, we will review innovation, in particular its challenges, and then we will discuss the major strategic changes that affect innovation practices. We will highlight two collaborative strategies, the first based on experience and the second based on exploration and reflection.

8.2. Innovation creates value

8.2.1. Open innovation at the heart of innovation strategies

Since the seminal work of Chesbrough [CHE 03], the design ...

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