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The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, 7 Volume Set by Fabienne Darling-Wolf, Radhika Parameswaran, Erica Scharrer, Vicki Mayer, Sharon Mazzarella, Kelly Gates, John Nerone, Angharad N. Valdivia

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10

Journalism History

Europe

Jürgen Wilke

ABSTRACT

Europe is the cradle of journalism. This does not only apply to the term, but also to the matter itself. The national and cultural diversity of the continent makes it difficult to generalize about its journalism history, but the rough outline of a common history is possible to recount. The earliest printed newspapers presented a correspondent's journalism. These were followed in most countries by journals of opinion. Commercialization in the nineteenth century produced a more popular journalism. Professionalization began in the nineteenth century also. The development of journalism in Europe in the twentieth century was above all influenced by two groups of factors. On the one hand, there were restraints resulting from the political conditions of this century. On the other hand, there were technical innovations which produced new mass media. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, journalism in Europe (as in other parts of the world) is again in a process of extensive change.

Europe is the cradle of journalism. This does not only apply to the term, but also to the matter itself. The term has a French origin, deriving from the French word for “day” (jour). It came into use as a result of the French Revolution in 1789 when the printed press became a forum for opinion-making (Barnhurst & Nerone, 2009, p. 19). In the nineteenth century, the concept also established itself in other European countries. However, the job title ...

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