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The Internet of Things in the Cloud by Honbo Zhou

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Chapter 3

Four Pillars of IoT

3.1 The Horizontal, Verticals, and Four Pillars

Applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) have spread across an enormously large number of industry sectors, and some technologies have been used for decades as described in the previous chapter. The development of the vertical applications in these sectors is unbalanced. It is very important to sort out those vertical applications and identify common underpinning technologies that can be used across the board, so that interconnecting, interrelating, and synergized grand integration and new creative, disruptive applications can be achieved.

One of the common characteristics of the Internet of Things is that objects in a IoT world have to be instrumented (step 3 ...

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