Chapter 2. 1939–1946: African-Americans Join the SIS


German Army Attacks Poland; Cities Bombed

Havas, French news agency, announced that a German declaration of war against Poland probably will lead France and Great Britain to take new military measures. Britain and France are committed to aid Poland in any fight to save her independence.

 --New York Times, September 1, 1939

At the outbreak of the war in Europe in 1939, the Signals Intelligence Service (SIS),[10] the fledgling U.S. cryptologic organization, had been in existence less than ten years. Created in 1930 in the Army's Office of the Chief Signal Officer (OCSigO), it represented the consolidation of the missions of two post-WWI organizations. First, the SIS was to develop secure codes ...

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