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The Invisible Cryptologists: African-Americans, WWII to 1956 by Jeannette Williams

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Chapter 7. 1948: R&D – A Different Kind of Place

 

It is the settled policy of the United States Government that there shall be no discrimination in Federal employment or in providing Federal services and facilities.

 
 --From the text of President Truman's message to Congress on civil rights, 3 February 1948, New York Times.
 

It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

 
 --From Executive Order 9981, signed by Harry S. Truman, 26 July 1948.

Despite President Truman's call for fair employment in the federal government and the issuance of Executive Order 9981, the Russian plaintext traffic ...

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