1. Our work builds on the work of a variety of other authors who have shaped this field, most importantly, James F. Moore, who pioneered the application of biological ecosystems to the business context. See James F. Moore, “Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition,” Harvard Business Review, May–June 1993; James F. Moore, The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems (New York: HarperBusiness, 1996).
2. For a conflicting viewpoint on the value of ecology as a metaphor for industries, see “Business as a Living System: The Value of Industrial Ecology. A Roundtable Discussion,” California Management Review 43 (Spring 2001): 16–25.
1. Robert Gavin, “Regional Report: ...