Job No:11-22360 Title:RP-Language of Graphic Design
#175 Dtp:204 Page:271
Job No:11-22360 Title:RP-Language of Graphic Design
#175 Dtp:204 Page:270
(RAY)
270-271_22360.indd 271 11/16/10 7:41:44 PM
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glossary
vertex
the angle formed at the bottom
of a character where the left and
right strokes meet or intersect, as
in a V or x
x-height
the height of the body of
lowercase letters, exclusive of
ascenders and descenders
spatial zone
groups of modules that form
distinct fields on a page grid for
containing or displaying similar or
alike information, such as groups
of images or multiple columns
of text
spine
the diagonal portion or main
curved stroke of an S or s
spur
a small, pointed projection from
a stem or stroke, sometimes found
on the bottom of a b, t, or G
stem (or stroke)
the principal vertical or oblique
element(s) of a character, as in
an A, B, L, or V; except for curved
characters where they are called
strokes
stress (or axis)
the inclination suggested by the
relationship of thin and thick
stems or strokes in a character,
which can be an inclined or vertical
stress or axis
Suprematism
a Russian abstract art movement
that focused on fundamental
geometric forms such as the circle
and the square
swash
a flourished terminal, stem, or
stroke added to a character
symmetry
a state of visual balance (also
known as formal balance or
reflective symmetry) in which
compositional elements are
identical, equally balanced, and
can be divided into two equal
parts that are mirror images
of each other
rhythm
an alternating repetition of
shape and space or a planned
movement of visual elements in a
composition
saturation
a fundamental property of color
defined by intensity, or the
brightness or dullness of a color
scale
the relationship of size or a
composition of size from one
element to another
secondary colors
colors created by combining two
of the three primary colors
semiotics
the study of sign processes or the
significance and communication of
signs and symbols
serif
the beginning or end of a stem or
stroke, arm, leg, or tail drawn at a
right angle or at an oblique to the
stem or stroke
shade
a fundamental property of color
defined by the amount of black
in a color
shape
the external outline or contour of
an object, figure, or mass
shoulder
the portion of a curved stroke, but
not the hairline, connecting two
vertical strokes or stems
space
an element of design that
indicates area and depth on a
two-dimensional plane
joint
the angle formed where two
strokes meet or intersect, as is
a K or R.
leg
a projecting diagonal stem or
stroke extending downward, as in
an R and a K; also known as a tail
ligature
a stem or stroke that connects
two characters together creating a
ligature or tied character
light
electromagnetic radiation of
wavelengths visible to the human
eye and used to create contrast,
depth, brightness, and illumination
line
a fundamental element that
consists of a number of points
located next to one another in
one direction
link
the stem or stroke that connects
the bowl and the loop of a g
loop
the descender of a g when it is
entirely closed
margin
border or negative space
surrounding a page’s format, grid,
and content, and defining the live
area of the page where type and
image are located and composed
marker
graphic indicators for supporting
page information, such as running
headers or footers, folios or page
numbers, or any other element
that occupies only one location on
a page or spread
module
individual units of space within
a page grid separated by regular
intervals that, when repeated
across, create columns and rows
monochromatic colors
colors with varying values of a
single color, created by adding
white or black to a color
movement
a principle of visual perception
that moves the viewer’s eye
through a two-dimensional space
pattern
the combination of lines, shapes,
and/or colors in a consistent,
orderly, or repetitive motif
pica
a typographic unit of
measurement where 12 points
equal 1 pica (1/16 inch or 0.166
inch) and 6 picas equal 1 inch
(0.996 inch)
Plakatstil
an early poster style of art that
began in the early 1900s and
originated in Germany
point
an abstract phenomenon
indicating a precise location;
also defined as the smallest
typographical unit of measure; one
point is equal to 0.0148 inches
primary colors
yellow, red, and blue are pure in
color composition and cannot be
created from other colors
proportion
a comparison of two ratios;
includes an indication of how the
two ratios are related
quadratic colors
created from colors located in the
corners of a square or rectangle
juxtaposed on a color wheel
radial balance
a state of visual balance (also
known as rotative symmetry)
in which visual forces of equal
strength radiate or extend out
from a central point
golden ratio
also known as the divine
proportion, golden section, and
golden rectangle; proportional
relationship defined as the whole
compared to a larger part in
exactly the same way that the
larger part is compared to a
smaller one; its mathematical
expression is the number 1.618
grid
a module system composed of
a set of horizontal and vertical
lines used as a guide to align type
and image and create a uniform
composition
gutter (or alley)
vertical spaces located between
columns of type on a page grid
hierarchy
an arranged, established visual
order of importance, emphasis,
and movement given to elements
in a composition
hue
a fundamental property of color
defined in its purest form
International
Typographic Style
a graphic design style developed
in Switzerland in the 1950s and
characterized by clean, readable,
asymmetric layouts and use of the
page grid and san serif typefaces;
also known as the Swiss School
isometric
a drawing projection method
where three visible surfaces of
a form have equal emphasis, all
axes are simultaneously rotated
away from the picture plane at
30 degrees, all lines are equally
foreshortened, and angles
between lines are always at 120
degrees
tail
the short stem or stroke that rests
on a baseline, as in a K or R; or
extending below a baseline, as in
a Q or j. In K and R, also known
as a leg
tension
a principle of visual perception
in which the forces of balance
or imbalance, stress, action,
and reaction exist between the
elements of any composition
terminal (or finial)
A stem or stroke ending other
than a serif
tertiary colors
colors created by combining one
primary color with one secondary
color
texture
a design element that creates
or implies the tactile quality and
characteristics of a surface
tint
a fundamental property of color
defined by the amount of white
in a color
tone
a visual characteristic, also known
as value or shade, based on the
degree of light or dark apparent
on the surface of an object
triadic colors
colors created from other colors
that are equidistant from one
another on a color wheel
typography
the arrangement and aesthetics of
letters and letterforms
value
a fundamental property of color
defined by the lightness and
darkness of a color
(Text) (RAY)
Job No:11-22360 Title:RP-Language of Graphic Design
12-C59773 #175 Dtp:204 Page:271
Job No:11-22360 Title:RP-Language of Graphic Design
12-C59773 #175 Dtp:204 Page:270
270-271_C59773.indd 271 12/12/10 11:44 AM

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