Life before 3P

History is strewn with stories of engineering designs that have resulted in expensive and sometimes fatal outcomes. Every story is different, but when the final analysis is done, every design problem had an understandable and preventable root cause.

The famous leaning Tower of Pisa, built in several phases over a 177-year period, has become a major tourist attraction due to the precarious manner in which it leans. To our modern eyes, the root cause is obvious—the 185 foot tall tower is anchored by a 10 foot thick foundation, ...

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