A
absolute zero, 87, 88, 104–105
AC. See alternating current (AC)
active material, 132
air conditioners, 192
alkaline dry cell batteries, 125,
133–134
alternating current (AC), 64–66,
75–76, 113–116, 121, 123,
149, 173, 189–190
circuits, 75–76
power supply, 114, 121,
123, 186
amber, 25
ammeter, 143
Ampère, André Marie, 45
amperes/amps (A), 16, 45, 68
Ampères law, 96, 107–108
anemometer/anemoscope, 154
anions, 127
anodes, 136–139, 169, 171, 193
appliances, electrical, 19, 24, 45,
46, 56–58, 71–72, 96,
123, 190
atomic numbers, 34
atomic structures, 34–35
atoms, 26–28, 34–35, 47,
127, 165
attraction, force of, 25, 49–50,
97, 108
B
base-collector junction, 179
base current, 178, 179–181, 182
base-emitter junction, 177–178
batteries, 45, 59–60
AA, 46–47, 74
chemical reactions and, 120
coils and, 112
coin, 140–141, 174
creating your own, 140–141
dry cell, 125, 130, 131,
132–134, 171–172, 178
in flashlights, 59, 73
lithium, 125
as power supplies, 63–64,
124–125
solar, 125
supply voltage, 46–47
types of, 125
voltage of stacked, 47
bi-metal thermostats, 191
bipolar transistors, 188
boilers, 147
boiling water reactors, 151–152
boron, 167, 168
breakdowns, 187
breakers, 19, 21–23
circuit, 19, 21
C
cadmium sulphide (CdS) cells, 193
calories, 85, 86, 104
capacitance, 115
capacitive reactance, 116
capacitors, 115–116, 187
cathodes, 136–139, 169, 171, 193
cations, 127, 128
CdS (cadmium sulphide cells), 193
cells, 124–132
cadmium sulphide, 193
chemical, 124–132
fuel, 124–125, 135–138
galvanic, 126, 130
physical, 124–125
solar, 125, 193
voltaic, 125
water, 135–137
charges, 29
attraction and repulsion, 25,
49–50, 97, 108
electrical discharges, 31–33, 51
measuring, 49
negative/positive, 29, 30–33,
36–39, 42, 47–48, 50–52
polarity of, 41
stored on capacitators, 115
chemical cells/reactions, 124–132,
137, 138
circuits
alternating current, 75–76
in appliances, 56–58
breakers, 19, 21
closed, 61, 73
connection methods used in,
69–72, 78–80
creating your own, 141, 142
diodes in, 171
direct current, 64, 74–75
drawings of, 73, 74
electrical parts of, 61–66, 73
in flashlights, 58–61, 73
integrated (ICs), 183
parallel, 79
closed current, 61
coal (as fuel), 147, 149
coils, 108, 111–115
coin batteries, 140–141, 174
collector current, 179–181
collector-emitter current, 182, 188
collectors, 177–180, 182
combined cycle generation, 149,
150–151
compasses, 95
compound semiconductors, 163
condensers, 149, 151
conductance (G), 77
conductivity, 34–35, 77, 135,
166, 168
photoconductivity, 193, 195
superconductivity, 88, 105
conductors, 30–31, 98–100,
108–110, 127, 148,
161, 162
connections, electrical, 69–72,
78–80
constant-voltage diodes, 187
consumed power, 17–18
consumer electric products,
20–24. See also electrical
appliances
Index
202 Index
contactless switches, 181–182
contacts, switch, 60, 61, 73, 188
contact-type sensors, 191
control rods, 151
converters, 189–190
copper
atoms, 35
plate, 126, 127, 128, 130, 140
wires, 31, 104, 128
copy machines, 43
cotton, 41–42, 51
Coulomb, Charles Augustine, 49
Coulomb’s force, 29, 43, 49–50
coulombs (Q), 45, 49–50, 104
counter-electromotive force, 112
current (I)
alternating, 64–66, 75–76,
113–116, 121, 123, 149,
173, 189–190
base, 178, 179–181, 182
closed, 61
collector, 179–181
collector-emitter, 182, 188
defined, 16, 45, 51, 128
direct, 64, 66, 74–75, 123,
149, 173, 189–190
direction of, 33, 51–52, 63–66,
75, 96–97, 98–101
drain, 189
fixed, 63, 74
flow of, 15–17, 20–24, 58,
61, 63–68, 73–78, 96,
108–109, 128
forward direction, 187
induced, 111
lagging, 113
leading, 116
limiters, 21
measuring, 16, 143
rated, 23
size of, 52
speed of, 53
temperature differences,
142–143
water, 181
D
dam-type power generation,
152–153
DC. See direct current (DC)
depolarizers, 131
digital cameras, 175
diodes, 163, 169–171, 173, 177,
183, 186–188, 189
bridges, 186
constant-voltage, 187
light-emitting, 141, 174–175
photodiodes, 193–194
Zener, 187–188
direct current (DC), 64, 66, 74–75,
123, 149, 173, 189–190
circuits, 64, 74–75
power supply, 74
direction, current, 33, 51–52,
63–66, 75, 96–97, 98–101
discharges, electrical, 31–33, 51
doping, 164
drain, 189
current, 189
dry cell batteries, 125, 130, 131,
132–134, 171–172, 178
E
effective resistance, 69–72, 78–80
effective voltage, 75–76, 123, 149
electric
current. See current
generators, 101, 110,
120–123, 147–149,
152–154
heaters, 62, 74
outlets, 23–24, 63–64,
123, 149
power, 17–18, 19, 45, 46
resistance. See resistance (R)
shocks, 40, 66
wires, 74, 77, 88, 96, 107,
108, 148. See also coils
electrical
appliances, 19, 24, 45, 46,
56–58, 71–72, 96, 123, 190
charges. See charges
connections, 69–72, 78–80
discharges, 31–33, 51
potential, 46–47
electricity, nature of, 25–29
electrochemical reactions, 132
electrodes, 127, 136, 169, 177
electrolytes, 126, 130, 132, 140
electromagnetic
force, 109, 111
induction, 111–112
waves, 91, 106–107
electromotive force, 61, 73,
100, 110, 111, 112,
122, 130
electrons, 26–29, 34–35, 47–48
in chemical reactions, 128–129,
137, 138
collisions of, 89–90, 93, 105
free, 27–28, 35, 47–48, 166,
167, 170, 171
holes, 167, 170, 174, 177–178
movement and electric charges,
49, 51–53
single, 48
speed of, 53
valence, 34–35, 48,
165–166, 167
electron shells, 34–35, 47–48, 165
electrostatic force, 29, 43, 49–50
electrostatic induction, 40, 50
emitter, 177–180, 182
energy
defined, 46
heat, 61, 62
light, 61, 62
measuring, 46
solar, 124–125
thermal, 106, 124
environmentally friendly
power, 154
escaped electrons. See free
electrons
Europe, voltage in, 45
extrinsic semiconductors, 164, 168

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