Appendix 3 Third-Party Intervention

Sometimes despite the best of intentions, the bargaining process breaks down, and negotiators are unable to reach an agreement on their own. When the bargaining process breaks down at the international level, war can result. Indeed, 482 international crises occurred between December 1918 and September 2013.1 When impasse occurs at the individual level, negotiators may pursue legal action. Sometimes negotiators try third-party intervention in an effort to avoid court action. Third-party intervention can be an excellent means of reaching settlement when the costs of disagreement are high.

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