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The Non-Designer’s Design Book, Fourth Edition by Robin Williams

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Chapter 2. Proximity

In the work of new designers, the words and phrases and graphics are often strung out all over the place, filling corners and taking up lots of room so there won’t be any empty space. There seems to be a fear of empty space. When pieces of a design are scattered all over, the page appears unorganized and the information may not be instantly accessible to the reader.

The Principle of Proximity states: Group related items together. Move them physically close to each other so the related items are seen as one cohesive group rather than a bunch of unrelated bits.

Items or groups of information that are not related to each other should not be in close proximity (nearness) to the other elements, which gives the reader an instant ...

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