3.2 Rechargeable Batteries for Energy Storage
A shift toward the use of renewable energy sources is increasingly attracting attention. The renewable energy sources (i.e., solar PV, solar heat, geothermal, wind, and biomass) provide to date only a few percent of the alternative energy carriers electricity and hydrogen (Goldemberg, 2007). In particular, the decentralized conversion of solar and wind energy is being studied and engineered worldwide. Solar PV and wind energy produce electrons and can be coupled directly to the electricity grid, thereby reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (van Geenhuizen and Schoonman, 2010). However, these renewable energy sources are discontinuous and, therefore, require adequate storage systems.
While present and future energy storage technologies fall in the broad categories of fly wheel, compressed air, superconducting coil, hydrogen, supercapacitor, and rechargeable battery, advanced materials for supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are attracting widespread research and development attention in academia and industry. This chapter will focus on rechargeable batteries and, in particular, on the rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery. The types of Li-ion batteries will be presented, along with the Li-ion battery ...