Understanding Development as a Series of Translations
When you consider the development process as a series of translations, you can see the costliness of late-cycle defects and other defects. Figure 17-1 shows the typical development process. The first few stages are documentary; there are no executable artifacts. Because the artifacts aren’t executable (verified by people), they inherently have a possibility of error.
Figure 17-1. Stages of development
Later, these artifacts are verified as executable expressions or by customers, as shown in Figure ...