Chapter 4. Infrastructure as Code

This chapter is about infrastructure as code (IaC), a system administration strategy where infrastructure is provisioned and managed through machine-processable definition files rather than manual labor. With this approach, we can manage our infrastructure using software engineering techniques such as source code control, unit tests, and continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD). IaC is a relatively new term, but it brings together a lot of ideas that have been present in system administration for decades.

In an IaC environment, we don’t make changes to systems directly. Instead, we update the code and data that are used to create our environments. For example, instead of configuring many web servers individually, ...

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