Chapter 1. Introduction

Bjarne Stroustrup, the inventor of the C++ programming language, once said, “Our civilization runs on software.” Software does indeed touch many aspects of our everyday lives and is found in something as simple as a birthday card that sings “Happy Birthday” when opened through to the ubiquitous cell phone and, of course, in very complex systems such as airplanes and nuclear power stations. In fact, many of the innovations that we take for granted today, and organizations such as eBay or Amazon, simply wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for software. Even traditional organizations, such as those in the finance, retail, and public sectors, depend heavily on software. In this day and age, it’s difficult to find an organization ...

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