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The Psychology Book

Book Description

The Psychology Book clearly and simply explains more than one hundred groundbreaking ideas of the great scientists and thinkers who contributed to the development of psychological thought.

Using easy-to-follow graphics and artworks, succinct quotations, and thoroughly accessible text, The Psychology Book makes abstract concepts concrete.

The Psychology Book includes innovative ideas from ancient and medieval thinkers ranging from Galen and René Descartes to the leaders of psychotherapy, such as Sigmund Freud and Abraham Maslow. The voices that continue to shape modern psychology, from Nico Fridja to David Rosenhan, are also included, giving anyone with an interest in psychology an essential resource to psychological thinking and history.

Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS • PSYCHOLOGY IN THE MAKING
    1. The four temperaments of personality • Galen
    2. There is a reasoning soul in this machine • Descartes
    3. Dormez! • Abbé Faria
    4. Concepts become forces when they resist oneanother • Johann Friedrich Herbart
    5. Be that self which one truly is • Søren Kierkegaard
    6. Personality is composed of nature and nurture • Francis Galton
    7. The laws of hysteria are universal • Jean-Martin Charcot
    8. A peculiar destruction of the internal connections of the psyche • Emil Kraepelin
    9. The beginnings of the mental life date from the beginnings of life • Wilhelm Wundt
    10. We know the meaning of “consciousness” so long as no one asks us to define it • William James
    11. Adolescence is a new birth • G. Stanley Hall
    12. 24 hours after learning something, we forget two-thirds of it • Hermann Ebbinghaus
    13. The intelligence of an individual is not a fixed quantity • Alfred Binet
    14. The unconscious sees the men behind the curtains • Pierre Janet
  3. BEHAVIORISM • RESPONDING TO OUR ENVIRONMENT
    1. The sight of tasty food makes a hungry man’s mouth water • Ivan Pavlov
    2. Profitless acts are stamped out • Edward Thorndike
    3. Anyone, regardless of their nature, can be trained to be anything • John B. Watson
    4. That great God-given maze which is our human world • Edward Tolman
    5. Once a rat has visited our grain sack we can plan on its return • Edwin Guthrie
    6. Nothing is more natural than for the cat to “love” the rat • Zing-Yang Kuo
    7. Learning is just not possible • Karl Lashley
    8. Imprinting cannot be forgotten! • Konrad Lorenz
    9. Behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement • B.F. Skinner
    10. Stop imagining the scene and relax • Joseph Wolpe
  4. PSYCHOTHERAPY • THE UNCONSCIOUS DETERMINES BEHAVIOR
    1. The unconscious is the true psychical reality • Sigmund Freud
    2. The neurotic carries a feeling of inferiority with him constantly • Alfred Adler
    3. The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes • Carl Jung
    4. The struggle between the life and death instincts persists throughout life • Melanie Klein
    5. The tyranny of the “shoulds” • Karen Horney
    6. The superego becomes clear only when it confronts the ego with hostility • Anna Freud
    7. Truth can be tolerated only if you discover it yourself • Fritz Perls
    8. It is notoriously inadequate to take an adopted child into one’s home and love him • Donald Winnicott
    9. The unconscious is the discourse of the Other • Jacques Lacan
    10. Man’s main task is to give birth to himself • Erich Fromm
    11. The good life is a process not a state of being • Carl Rogers
    12. What a man can be, he must be • Abraham Maslow
    13. Suffering ceases to be suffering at the moment it finds a meaning • Viktor Frankl
    14. One does not become fully human painlessly • Rollo May
    15. Rational beliefs create healthy emotional consequences • Albert Ellis
    16. The family is the “factory” where people are made • Virginia Satir
    17. Turn on, tune in, drop out • Timothy Leary
    18. Insight may cause blindness • Paul Watzlawick
    19. Madness need not be all breakdown. It may also be break-through • R.D. Laing
    20. Our history does not determine our destiny • Boris Cyrulnik
    21. Only good people get depressed • Dorothy Rowe
    22. Fathers are subject to a rule of silence • Guy Corneau
  5. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY • THE CALCULATING BRAIN
    1. Instinct is a dynamic pattern • Wolfgang Köhler
    2. Interruption of a task greatly improves its chances of being remembered • Bluma Zeigarnik
    3. When a baby hears footsteps, an assembly is excited • Donald Hebb
    4. Knowing is a process not a product • Jerome Bruner
    5. A man with conviction is a hard man to change • Leon Festinger
    6. The magical number 7, plus or minus 2 • George Armitage Miller
    7. There’s more to the surface than meets the eye • Aaron Beck
    8. We can listen to only one voice at once • Donald Broadbent
    9. Time’s arrow is bent into a loop • Endel Tulving
    10. Perception is externally guided hallucination • Roger N. Shepard
    11. We are constantly on the lookout for causal connections • Daniel Kahneman
    12. Events and emotion are stored in memory together • Gordon H. Bower
    13. Emotions are a runaway train • Paul Ekman
    14. Ecstasy is a step into an alternative reality • Mihály Csíkszentmihályi
    15. Happy people are extremely social • Martin Seligman
    16. What we believe with all our hearts is not necessarily the truth • Elizabeth Loftus
    17. The seven sins of memory • Daniel Schacter
    18. One is not one’s thoughts • Jon Kabat-Zinn
    19. The fear is that biology will debunk all that we hold sacred • Steven Pinker
    20. Compulsive behavior rituals are attempts to control intrusive thoughts • Paul Salkovskis
  6. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY • BEING IN A WORLD OF OTHERS
    1. You cannot understand a system until you try to change it • Kurt Lewin
    2. How strong is the urge toward social conformity? • Solomon Asch
    3. Life is a dramatically enacted thing • Erving Goffman
    4. The more you see it, the more you like it • Robert Zajonc
    5. Who likes competent women? • Janet Taylor Spence
    6. Flashbulb memories are fired by events of high emotionality • Roger Brown
    7. The goal is not to advance knowledge, but to be in the know • Serge Moscovici
    8. We are, by nature, social beings • William Glasser
    9. We believe people get what they deserve • Melvin Lerner
    10. People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy • Elliot Aronson
    11. People do what they are told to do • Stanley Milgram
    12. What happens when you put good people in an evil place? • Philip Zimbardo
    13. Trauma must be understood in terms of the relationship between the individual and society • Ignacio Martín-Baró
  7. DEVELOPMENTAL PHILOSOPHY • FROM INFANT TO ADULT
    1. The goal of education is to create men and women who are capable of doing new things • Jean Piaget
    2. We become ourselves through others • Lev Vygotsky
    3. A child is not beholden to any particular parent • Bruno Bettelheim
    4. Anything that grows has a ground plan • Erik Erikson
    5. Early emotional bonds are an integral part of human nature • John Bowlby
    6. Contact comfort is overwhelmingly important • Harry Harlow
    7. We prepare children for a life about whose course we know nothing • Françoise Dolto
    8. A sensitive mother creates a secure attachment • Mary Ainsworth
    9. Who teaches a child to hate and fear a member of another race? • Kenneth Clark
    10. Girls get better grades than boys • Eleanor E. Maccoby
    11. Most human behavior is learned through modeling • Albert Bandura
    12. Morality develops in six stages • Lawrence Kohlberg
    13. The language organ grows like any other body organ • Noam Chomsky
    14. Autism is an extreme form of the male brain • Simon Baron-Cohen
  8. PSYCHOLOGY OF DIFFERENCE • PERSONALITY AND INTELLIGENCE
    1. Name as many uses as you can think of for a toothpick • J.P. Guilford
    2. Did Robinson Crusoe lack personality traits before the advent of Friday? • Gordon Allport
    3. General intelligence consists of both fluid and crystallized intelligence • Raymond Cattell
    4. There is an association between insanity and genius • Hans J. Eysenck
    5. Three key motivations drive performance • David C. McClelland
    6. Emotion is an essentially unconscious process • Nico Frijda
    7. Behavior without environmental cues would be absurdly chaotic • Walter Mischel
    8. We cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals • David Rosenhan
    9. The three faces of Eve • Thigpen & Cleckley
  9. DIRECTORY
  10. GLOSSARY
  11. CONTRIBUTORS
  12. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  13. COPYRIGHT