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The Psychology Book by

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RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Analysis of consciousness

BEFORE

1641 René Descartes defines consciousness of self in terms of the ability to think.

1690 English philosopher and physician John Locke defines consciousness as “the perception of what passes in a man’s own mind.”

1781 German philosopher Immanuel Kant states that simultaneous events are experienced as a “unity of consciousness.”

AFTER

1923 Max Wertheimer in Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms shows how the mind actively interprets images.

1925 John B. Watson dismisses consciousness as “neither a definite nor a usable concept.”

The term “consciousness” is generally used to refer to an individual’s awareness ...

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