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The Psychology Book by

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RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Classical conditioning

BEFORE

Early 12th century Arab physician Avenzoar (Ibn Zuhr) performs experiments on animals in order to test surgical procedures.

1890 In Principles of Psychology, William James states that in animals “the feeling of having executed one impulsive step is an indispensable part of the stimulus of the next one.”

AFTER

1920 John B. Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment demonstrates classical conditioning in humans.

1930s B.F. Skinner shows that rats can be “conditioned” to behave in a specific way.

1950s Psychotherapists employ “conditioning” as part of behavior therapy.

Many of the key discoveries made when modern psychology ...

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