Individual psychology


1896 William James says that self-esteem is about a ratio of “goals satisfied” to “goals unmet” and can be raised by lowering expectations as well as through achievements.

1902 Charles Horton Cooley describes the “looking glass self;” the way we view ourselves is based on how we imagine other people view us.


1943 Abraham Maslow says that to feel both necessary and good about ourselves we need achievements as well as respect from others.

1960s British psychologist Michael Argyle states that comparison shapes self-esteem; we feel better when we feel more successful than others, and worse when we feel ...

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