RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Psychoanalysis

BEFORE

1818 German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer states that existence is driven by the will to live, which is constantly being opposed by an equally forceful death drive.

1910 Psychoanalyst Wilhelm Stekel suggests that social suppression of the sexual instinct is paralleled by the growth of a death instinct.

1932 Sigmund Freud claims that the most basic drive for satisfaction is in fact a striving toward death.

AFTER

2002 American psychologist Julie K. Norem introduces the idea of “defensive pessimism,” suggesting that being pessimistic may in fact better prepare people to cope with the demands and stresses of modern ...

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