Gestalt psychology


1890 Austrian philosopher Christian von Ehrenfels introduces the concept of Gestalt in his book, On the Qualities of Form.

1912 Max Wertheimer publishes Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement, a landmark in Gestalt psychology.


1920s Edward Tolman brings together ideas from Gestalt and behaviorist psychology in his purposive behaviorism (now cognitive behaviorism).

1935 Psychology of Productive Thinking by Karl Duncker—a German Gestalt psychologist—describes experiments in problem-solving and mental restructuring.

In the late 19th century, a group of German psychologists who disagreed with ...

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