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The Python Standard Library by Example by Doug Hellmann

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Chapter 5. Mathematics

As a general-purpose programming language, Python is frequently used to solve mathematical problems. It includes built-in types for managing integers and floating-point numbers, which are suitable for the basic math that might appear in an average application. The standard library includes modules for more advanced needs.

Python’s built-in floating-point numbers use the underlying double representation. They are sufficiently precise for most programs with mathematical requirements, but when more accurate representations of noninteger values are needed, the decimal and fractions modules will be useful. Arithmetic with decimal and fractional values retains precision, but it is not as fast as the native float.

The random

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