Alain Verbeke and Wenlong Yuan
Multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiaries can take on various responsibilities and roles, due to corporate role assignment, subsidiary choice, and external environmental changes (Birkinshaw et al., 1998; Birkinshaw, 2000; Rugman & Verbeke, 2001). Internal changes or external environmental shifts may drive these roles to evolve over time. The literature on subsidiary dynamics has focused most of its attention on the impact of internal, organizational changes, while largely ignoring the influence of supranational, environmental changes (Rugman, Verbeke & Yuan, 2011; Verbeke & Yuan, 2013). Even when environmental ...