Insights from cross-disciplinary perspectives

Gary Cook and Naresh Pandit


Since the publication of Porter’s The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990) and the landmark article of John Dunning (1998), there has been a surge of interest in the sub-national geographic scale as a key unit of analysis when considering the geographic pattern of multinational activity. Likewise, the ideas of Economic Geographers, especially Dicken (2015), have also encouraged a more fine-grained analysis of where, exactly, firms will choose to locate particular activities. Cities as a spatial unit of analysis have not been absent in the field of International Business (IB), indeed Hymer (1976) wrote about cities; ...

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