Management is the art of getting three men to do three men’s work.

from: The William Feather Magazine on Scientific Management 1919

Scientifically, work is a fact. It belongs to the physical observations of energy, just as heat, light, chemical, or nuclear bonding. In particular, work is the mechanical form of energy and can be due to motion, elevation, tension, friction, rotation, momentum, pressure, and many others. As a matter of fact, it underlies the law of conservation and therefore represents some exclusivity as previously explained for factual truths.3 Hence, the work of three men will always stay the work of three men. In natural science this is called the First Law of Thermodynamics.

Yet, the effects of work may differ reasonably. ...

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