4 Utterance Meaning and Communicative Sense – Two Levels or One?

The aim of chapter 3 was to characterise the level of what is said/utterance meaning as a preliminary to specifying the conditions that have to hold when some utterance is said to have literal meaning. The question of how what is said differs from what is meant was touched but not elaborated on. However, this is an important question to investigate, since, as with the level of what is said, Grice’s assumptions concerning the nature of and phenomena found at the level of what is meant have not gone undisputed. Thus, recall for instance that at least for metaphor – traditionally assumed to belong to the level of what is meant – we already saw that apparently a prior determination ...

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