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The Structure of Learning by Beatrix Gardner, R. Allen Gardner

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CHAPTER  3

Instrumental Conditioning

Plainly, classical conditioning is both a highly effective laboratory procedure and an essential means of learning for human and nonhuman animals in common situations outside of the laboratory. In the traditional view, classical conditioning may be sufficient for simple, obligatory, physiological responses like salivation, heart rate, and eyeblinks, but a larger class of learning requires a more advanced procedure. In this view, instrumental conditioning seems more appropriate for learning skills, particularly complex skills such as playing a violin, programming a computer, or conducting an experiment.

In classical conditioning the experimenter presents, or omits, the UCS according to a predetermined experimental ...

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