capabilities (tools, methods, knowledge, and so forth) a program is
intended to provide. The best rule of thumb is as follows: Start collect-
ing information from whomever you are first in contact with and learn
as much as you can from this source about any or all of the impact
model information categories. Then, ask this person to whom else you
can have access to get missing information. Continue this process until
you have learned what you need to produce enough of an impact model
to guide your study.
Table 4.4 provides some suggestions and guidance for completing
each of the impact model information categories and will serve as a use-
ful guide for readers.
Some Impact Model Examples
These closing pages of the chapter present some example impact mod-
els derived from a variety of different SC studies in which the author
has been involved. A few explanatory notes to help readers understand
the differences and nuances among the examples provided accompany
each. Readers should note that some impact models employ different
terms and language. Some even have different numbers of columns,
again to reflect the peculiarities of different client contexts. Readers
should also note that each impact model is based on the same funda-
mental structure; each always shows how some capability introduced
by a particular program is intended to be applied (in job performance
and results) to help achieve or contribute to some higher-level organi-
zational goal.
Envisioning Success: Creating an Impact Model
The Success Case Method
Table 4.4
Tips for Completing an Impact Model
Impact Model Category Suggestions
Business goals Determine the highest-level goal that should be
identified to justify and demonstrate the worth
of the program (e.g., overall organization goal,
division goal, work unit goal) then, interview
program designers and/or leaders
Ask questions of any available stakeholders
Talk with senior executives and leaders
Analyze business plans or strategic white papers
Read annual reports
Review the company’s Web site
Program objectives Observe the program in action
and content (the (e.g., sit in on a training session)
capabilities it
aims to create) Review program materials
Interview program designers and/or leaders
Critical actions Analyze the program objectives
(intended behavioral
applications of the Review program case studies and examples
program capabilities)
Interview program designers and/or leaders
Interview a few program participants
Key results (intended Visit some job sites and ask questions
job/team application
outcomes; Review the performance appraisal forms
performance or instruments the organization uses
objectives) Interview a few managers of program participants
Analyze the program objectives
Review program case studies and examples
Interview program designers and/or leaders
Interview a few available program participants

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