1. Welcome to Modern Swift

When Apple introduced the Swift programming language in 2014, it offered a performance-tuned type-safe modern programming language intended to supplant Objective-C. The new language included protocol-oriented development, type inferencing, automatic reference counting, generics, first-class function objects, overloading, nullability, optionals, and more. Swift overhauled control mechanisms and constructs, enhancing features like switches and enumerations to add flexibility and power to Cocoa and Cocoa Touch projects.

Lead developer Chris Lattner began Swift language development in 2010. The project grew, and by 2013 had become a major focus for Apple’s developer tools group. After the 2014 launch, Chris Lattner described ...

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