CHAPTER 4

Commerce as a System

The previous chapter examined sustainability as a system in terms of social, environmental, and economic impacts and described how systems thinking could reveal to business leaders opportunities to more efficiently use both human and natural capital. Risks and rewards inherent in issues such as environmental pollution, water use, and unrestrained growth were analyzed (the next few chapters expand further on these rewards and risks). When looking at these issues through a systems lens, managers can design innovative strategies to capitalize on openings for generative, restorative, or risk mitigation services and products.

This chapter will look at commerce as a system, beginning with the extraction/harvesting phase, ...

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