1. A thorough analysis of Toyota’s response to the Great Recession and the recall crisis can be found in Jeffrey Liker and Timothy Ogden, Toyota under Fire (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011).

2. It is not accurate to say there were no layoffs in any part of Toyota. At Toyota Motor Sales, there were some layoffs of dock workers during the recession. And NUMMI was closed, though it was an affiliate, not a Toyota plant.

3. Andrea Tse, “2010 U.S. Auto Recalls,” The Street, June 28, 2010.

4. The vision can be found at


1. Jesse Snyder, “Ford Scores Tumble, Toyota Rebounds in Initial Quality Survey,” Automotive News, June 23, 2011; ...

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