1This paper originated from ideas in a subsection of Sharma & Wiltshire (2012); thanks to Devyani Sharma for discussion on the issues here, and to former and current graduate assistants Priyankoo Sarmah, Divya Verma Gogoi, and Si Chen for assistance with the data. Comments from the audience at ISLE 2011 at Boston University improved the contents, as did the close readings by and numerous suggestions from Eugene Green and Charles Meyer. Any remaining shortcomings are my own.

2In the contact situations in which New Englishes arise, the substrate languages are the previously existing local languages, often of lower status, which can influence the structure of the superstrate English. An individual’s first language (or L1) may or may not be the ...

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