O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Thin-Film Organic Photonics

Book Description

Among the many atomic/molecular assembling techniques used to develop artificial materials, molecular layer deposition (MLD) continues to receive special attention as the next-generation growth technique for organic thin-film materials used in photonics and electronics.

Thin-Film Organic Photonics: Molecular Layer Deposition and Applications describes how photonic/electronic properties of thin films can be improved through MLD, which enables precise control of atomic and molecular arrangements to construct a wire network that achieves "three-dimensional growth". MLD facilitates dot-by-dot—or molecule-by-molecule—growth of polymer and molecular wires, and that enhanced level of control creates numerous application possibilities.

Explores the wide range of MLD applications in solar energy and optics, as well as proposed uses in biomedical photonics

This book addresses the prospects for artificial materials with atomic/molecular-level tailored structures, especially those featuring MLD and conjugated polymers with multiple quantum dots (MQDs), or polymer MQDs. In particular, the author focuses on the application of artificial organic thin films to:

  • Photonics/electronics, particularly in optical interconnects used in computers
    Optical switching and solar energy conversion systems
  • Bio/ medical photonics, such as photodynamic therapy
  • Organic photonic materials, devices, and integration processes

With its clear and concise presentation, this book demonstrates exactly how MLD enables electron wavefunction control, thereby improving material performance and generating new photonic/electronic phenomena.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1. Introduction
  9. Chapter 2. Atomic/Molecular Assembling Technologies
    1. 2.1 Similarity of Electronic Waves to Light Waves
    2. 2.2 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
      1. 2.2.1 Atomic Manipulation Process
      2. 2.2.2 Detection of Wavefunctions
      3. 2.2.3 Quantum Corral and Quantum Mirage
    3. 2.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
      1. 2.3.1 Growth Mechanism of MBE
      2. 2.3.2 High-Electron-Mobility Transistors
      3. 2.3.3 Multiple Quantum Well Light Modulators
      4. 2.3.4 Relationships to Other Growth Techniques
    4. 2.4 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
    5. 2.5 Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (Plasma CVD)
      1. 2.5.1 Amorphous Superlattices
      2. 2.5.2 Characterization of the a-SiNx:H/a-Si:H Interface
        1. 2.5.2.1 Sample Preparation
        2. 2.5.2.2 Measurements
        3. 2.5.2.3 Optical/Electrical Properties of a-SiNx:H layers
        4. 2.5.2.4 Photoluminescence Spectra
      3. 2.5.3 Transfer-Doping and Electron-Trapping Effects in a-SiNx:H/a-Si:H Superlattices
        1. 2.5.3.1 Fabrication and Measurement Procedures
        2. 2.5.3.2 Transfer Doping
        3. 2.5.3.3 Electron Trapping
    6. 2.6 Sputtering
      1. 2.6.1 Electrochromism in WOx Thin Films
      2. 2.6.2 Enhancement of Coloration Efficiency in WOx with Controlled Film Structures
    7. 2.7 Vacuum Deposition Polymerization
    8. References
  10. Chapter 3. Fundamentals of Molecular Layer Deposition (MLD)
    1. 3.1 Concept of MLD
      1. 3.1.1 MLD Utilizing Chemical Reactions
      2. 3.1.2 MLD Utilizing Electrostatic Force
      3. 3.1.3 MLD with Molecule Groups
    2. 3.2 MLD Equipment
      1. 3.2.1 Gas-Phase MLD
        1. 3.2.1.1 K Cell–Type MLD
        2. 3.2.1.2 Carrier Gas–Type MLD
      2. 3.2.2 Liquid-Phase MLD
        1. 3.2.2.1 Fluidic-Circuit Type MLD
    3. 3.3 Proof of Concept of MLD
      1. 3.3.1 MLD Utilizing Chemical Reactions
        1. 3.3.1.1 Polyimide
        2. 3.3.1.2 Conjugated Polymers
      2. 3.3.2 MLD Utilizing Electrostatic Force
        1. 3.3.2.1 Stacked Structures of p-Type and n-Type Dye Molecules on ZnO Surfaces
        2. 3.3.2.2 Molecular Crystals
    4. 3.4 MLD with Controlled Growth Orientations and Locations
      1. 3.4.1 Growth Control by Seed Cores
        1. 3.4.1.1 MLD from SAM
        2. 3.4.1.2 Organic CVD from SAM
      2. 3.4.2 Monomolecular Step Polymer Wire Growth from Seed Cores
    5. 3.5 High-Rate MLD
      1. 3.5.1 Influences of Molecular Gas Flow on Polymer Film Growth
      2. 3.5.2 Domain-Isolated MLD
    6. 3.6 Selective Wire Growth
      1. 3.6.1 Selective Growth on Surfaces with Patterned Treatment
      2. 3.6.2 Selectively-Aligned Growth on Atomic-Scale Anisotropic Structures
        1. 3.6.2.1 Concept
        2. 3.6.2.2 Growth
        3. 3.6.2.3 Optical Characterization for Selective Alignment of Polymer Wires
      3. 3.6.3 Electric-Field-Assisted Growth
      4. 3.6.4 Head-to-Tail Growth
    7. 3.7 Mass Production Process for Nano-Scale Devices Fabricated by MLD
    8. 3.8 Examples of Goals Achieved by MLD
      1. 3.8.1 Functional Organic Devices
      2. 3.8.2 Integrated Nano-Scale Optical Circuits
      3. 3.8.3 Molecular Circuits
    9. References
  11. Chapter 4. Fabrication of Multiple-Quantum Dots (MQDs) by MLD
    1. 4.1 Fundamentals of Quantum Dots
    2. 4.2 Quantum Dot Construction in Conjugated Polymers by MLD
      1. 4.2.1 MQD Fabrication by Arranging Two Kinds of Molecules
      2. 4.2.2 MQDs Fabricated by Arranging Three Kinds of Molecules
    3. References
  12. Chapter 5. Theoretical Predictions of Electro-Optic (EO) Effects in Polymer Wires
    1. 5.1 Molecular Orbital Method
    2. 5.2 Nonlinear Optical Effects
    3. 5.3 Procedure for Evaluation of the EO Effects by the Molecular Orbital Method
    4. 5.4 Qualitative Guidelines for Improving Optical Nonlinearities
      1. 5.4.1 For Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity
      2. 5.4.2 For Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity
    5. 5.5 Enhancement of Second-Order Optical Nonlinearity by Controlling Wavefunctions
      1. 5.5.1 Effects of Wavefunction Shapes
      2. 5.5.2 Effects of Conjugated Wire Lengths
      3. 5.5.3 Relationship between Wavefunctions and Transition Dipole Moments
      4. 5.5.4 Optical Nonlinearity in Conjugated Wires with Poly-AM Backbones
      5. 5.5.5 Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity by Sharpening Absorption Bands
    6. 5.6 Enhancement of Third-Order Optical Nonlinearity by Controlling Wavefunctions
    7. 5.7 Multiple Quantum Dots (MQDs) in Conjugated Polymer Wires
    8. References
  13. Chapter 6. Design of Integrated Optical Switches
    1. 6.1 Variable Well Optical ICs (VWOICs) and Waveguide Prism Deflectors (WPDs)
      1. 6.1.1 Design of VWOIC
      2. 6.1.2 Design of WPD Optical Switch Utilizing the Pockels Effect
        1. 6.1.2.1 Simulation Procedure
        2. 6.1.2.2 Structural Model
        3. 6.1.2.3 Simulated Performance
      3. 6.1.3 Design of WPD Optical Switch Utilizing the Kerr Effect
        1. 6.1.3.1 Simulation Procedure
        2. 6.1.3.2 Structural Model
        3. 6.1.3.3 Simulated Performance
      4. 6.1.4 Impact of Polymer MQDs on Optical Switch Performance
      5. 6.1.5 Future Integration Issues
      6. 6.1.6 Experimental Demonstration of WPD Utilizing PLZT
    2. 6.2 Nano-Scale Optical Switches
      1. 6.2.1 Ring Resonator Optical Switches
      2. 6.2.2 Bandwidth Limit in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
      3. 6.2.3 Polymer MQDs in Nano-Scale Optical Switches
    3. References
  14. Chapter 7. Organic Photonic Materials, Devices, and Integration Processes.... 183
    1. 7.1 Electro-Optic (EO) Materials
      1. 7.1.1 Characterization Procedure for the Pockels Effect in Organic Thin Films
      2. 7.1.2 Molecular Crystals
        1. 7.1.2.1 SPCD
        2. 7.1.2.2 MNA
      3. 7.1.3 Poled Polymers and Optical Switches
        1. 7.1.3.1 EO Effects in Poled Polymers
        2. 7.1.3.2 EO Polyimide
        3. 7.1.3.3 Optical Switches Using EO Polyimide
        4. 7.1.3.4 3-D Optical Switches
    2. 7.2 Optical Waveguides Fabricated by Selective Wire Growth
      1. 7.2.1 EO Waveguides Fabricated by Electric-Field- Assisted Growth
        1. 7.2.1.1 Epoxy-Amine Polymer
        2. 7.2.1.2 Poly-Azomethine
      2. 7.2.2 Conjugated Polymer Waveguides Fabricated on Anisotropic Surface Structures
      3. 7.2.3 Acceptor Substitution into Conjugated Polymer Wires
    3. 7.3 Nano-Scale Waveguides of Photo-Induced Refractive Index Increase Sol-Gel Materials
      1. 7.3.1 Fabrication Process
      2. 7.3.2 Linear Waveguides
      3. 7.3.3 S-Bending and Y-Branching Waveguides
      4. 7.3.4 Fine 3-D Structures for All-Air-Clad Waveguides
    4. 7.4 Self-Organized Lightwave Network (SOLNET) for Self-Aligned Optical Couplings and Vertical Waveguides
      1. 7.4.1 The SOLNET Concept
      2. 7.4.2 Proof of Concept of SOLNET
        1. 7.4.2.1 One-Beam-Writing SOLNET
        2. 7.4.2.2 Two-Beam-Writing SOLNET
        3. 7.4.2.3 R-SOLNET
    5. 7.5 Resource-Saving Heterogeneous Integration
      1. 7.5.1 Concept of PL-Pack with SORT
      2. 7.5.2 Advantages of PL-Pack with SORT
        1. 7.5.2.1 Resource Saving
        2. 7.5.2.2 Process Simplicity
        3. 7.5.2.3 Thermal Stress Reduction
      3. 7.5.3 Experimental Demonstrations of SORT
        1. 7.5.3.1 SORT of Polymer Waveguide Lenses
        2. 7.5.3.2 SORT of Optical Waveguides
    6. 7.6 Optical Waveguide Films with Vertical Mirrors and 3-D Optical Circuits
      1. 7.6.1 Optical Waveguide Films with Vertical Mirrors
      2. 7.6.2 3-D Optical Circuits
        1. 7.6.2.1 Type 1: Stacked Waveguide Films with 45° Mirrors
        2. 7.6.2.2 Type 2: Waveguide Films with Vertical Waveguides of SOLNET
      3. References
  15. Chapter 8. Applications to Optical Interconnects and Optical Switching Systems
    1. 8.1 3-D Optoelectronic (OE) Platform Based on Scalable Film Optical Link Module (S-FOLM)
    2. 8.2 Optical Interconnects within Boxes
      1. 8.2.1 Multilayer OE Boards and 3-D Stacked OE Multi-Chip Modules
      2. 8.2.2 OE Amplifier/Driver-Less Substrate (OE-ADLES)
      3. 8.2.3 Impact of Polymer MQDs on OE-ADLES
    3. 8.3 3-D Micro Optical Switching System (3D-MOSS)
      1. 8.3.1 The 3D-MOSS Concept
      2. 8.3.2 Implementation of SOLNET in 3D-MOSSs
      3. 8.3.3 Structural Model of 3D-MOSS
      4. 8.3.4 Optical Z-Connections and Optical Switches
        1. 8.3.4.1 Optical Z-Connections
        2. 8.3.4.2 Optical Switches
      5. 8.3.5 Predicted Performance of 3D-MOSS
        1. 8.3.5.1 Size and Insertion Loss
        2. 8.3.5.2 Electrical Characteristics
      6. 8.3.6 Impact of Nano-Scale Waveguides and Polymer MQDs on 3D-MOSS Performance
    4. References
  16. Chapter 9. Applications to Solar Energy Conversion Systems
    1. 9.1 Sensitized Photovoltaic Devices
      1. 9.1.1 Concept of Multidye Sensitization and Polymer- MQD Sensitization
      2. 9.1.2 Waveguide-Type Photovoltaic Device Concept
      3. 9.1.3 Proof of Concept of Multidye Sensitization by Liquid-Phase MLD
        1. 9.1.3.1 Spectral Sensitization of ZnO by p/n- Stacked Structures
        2. 9.1.3.2 Sensitization by p/n-Stacked Structures Constructed by Liquid-Phase MLD
      4. 9.1.4 Proof of Concept of Polymer-MQD Sensitization
      5. 9.1.5 Proof of Concept of Waveguide-Type Photovoltaic Devices
    2. 9.2 Integrated Solar Energy Conversion Systems
      1. 9.2.1 Concept of Integrated Solar Energy Conversion Systems
      2. 9.2.2 The Integrated Photonic/Electronic/Chemical System (IPECS)
      3. 9.2.3 Structures of Light Beam Collecting Films
      4. 9.2.4 Design of Light Beam Collecting Films
        1. 9.2.4.1 Simulation Procedure
        2. 9.2.4.2 Tapered Vertical/Horizontal Waveguide-Type Light Beam Collecting Films
        3. 9.2.4.3 Multilayer Waveguide-Type Light Beam Collecting Films
      5. 9.2.5 Possible Fabrication Process
      6. 9.2.6 Impact of Polymer MQDs on Integrated Solar Energy Conversion Systems
    3. 9.3 Novel Structures of Photovoltaic and Photosynthesis Devices
    4. 9.4 Waveguide-Type Photovoltaic Devices with a Charge Storage/Photosynthesis Function
    5. References
  17. Chapter 10. Proposed Applications to Biomedical Photonics
    1. 10.1 Therapy for Cancer Utilizing Liquid-Phase MLD
      1. 10.1.1 Photodynamic Therapy Using Two-Photon Absorption with Different Wavelenghts
      2. 10.1.2 In-Situ Synthesis of a Drug within Human Bodies
    2. 10.2 Indicator for Reflective or Emissive Targets Utilizing R-SOLNET
    3. 10.3 Integrated Photoluminescence Analysis Chips
    4. 10.4 Molecular Recognition Chip References
  18. Epilogue
  19. Index