The original definition of the word ontology comes from the field of Philosophy, where it refers to the concept of existence. More currently, the concept of ontology defines the sets of objects and their interrelationships. As used in information science, the term ontology frequently refers to a hierarchical data structure containing the relevant objects and their relationships, as well as the rules within that domain.
In the field of Artificial Intelligence, ontology applications have been developed for knowledge management, natural language processing, e-Commerce, education, and new emerging technologies such as the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web requires the construction of ontologies for its various representation languages, query languages, and inference technologies.
In this chapter we present the basic methodology for designing and building ontologies. In addition, we describe ontology matching and mapping, which are essential to knowledge representations.
The Semantic Web requires the construction of ontologies for its various representation languages, query languages, and inference technologies. They define common vocabularies for the sharing of information that can be used by both humans and computers. Ontologies can be in the form of lists of words; taxonomies, database schema, frame languages and logics. The main difference between these forms is their expressive power. An ontology together with a corresponding set ...