Clock Distribution Networks for Three-Dimensional ICs
A prototype circuit, the second of the three prototype circuits presented in this book, investigating different global three-dimensional (3-D) clock distribution networks, is described in this chapter. A variety of clock networks such as H-trees, rings, tree-like networks, and trunk-based networks, are explored in terms of clock skew and power consumption to determine an effective clock distribution network for 3-D ICs. The prototype test circuit composed of these networks is manufactured by the 3-D fabrication process developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratories. The design and modeling process and related experimental results are also included in this chapter. Power ...