Chapter 21

Conclusions

With FET channel lengths below 10 nm, modern silicon integrated systems support gigascale densities composed of billions of transistors. Modern on-chip systems often include several heterogeneous processing cores within a microprocessor system or a mixture of different silicon technologies, such as analog, digital, and RF, in a mixed-signal SoC. A fundamental requirement for this system-on-chip (SoC) paradigm is efficient and reliable communication among the many different system components.

High speed, low power, and low noise intercomponent communication is fundamentally limited by the increasing impedance characteristics and length of the interconnect. Three-dimensional (3-D) integration is an effective solution to ...

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