A point in space can be represented using the Cartesian coordinate using two numbers **x** and **y**. The same point can also be represented in the polar coordinate by using the distance from the origin (**r**) and the angle from the *x* axis (theta), as shown in the following diagram:

To convert between polar and Cartesian coordinates, we use the following equalities:

*x= r cos(θ) and y = rsin(θ)*

It is easier to plot equations expressed in terms of **r** and **θ** on a special kind of graph called the **polar plot**, which is divided into small concentric circles and radial lines emanating from the center. The radial lines are normally spaced ...