564
transmission delays, 435
transparent bridges, spanning-tree algorithm, 227
BackboneFast, 228–229
Loop Guard, 230–231
PortFast, 227–228
UDLD (Unidirectional Link Detection), 230
UplinkFast, 228–229
transparent bridging, 223–225
transparent switching, 225
multilayers, 226–227
OSI layers, 225–226
Trap packets, SNMP, 308
triggered updates, IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol), 245
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), 280
troubleshooting
count-to-infinity problems, 237
fault management, 302–303
Trunk Frame Relay fragmentation, 436
trunk links, 159
trunk networks, Gigabit Ethernet, 333
TSpec (traffic specification), 123
TTL (time-to-live) field, 302
tunneling, IPv4 to IPv6 addresses, 209
twinax cables, 323
twin-axial cables (twinax), 323
type-of-service, QoS, 438–439
DS (Differentiated Services) field, 440
field, 439
U
U reference point, ISDN, 369–370
UBR (unspecified bit rate), 121
UDLD (Unidirectional Link Detection), 230
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 302
flow control, 117
traceroute packet, 302
umbrella NMSs, 306
Umqua Systems, Inc. design testing example
background information, 416
conclusions, 426–427
current network, 418
DS-1 circuit, 423–424
FDDI backbone traffic, 419–423
goals, 416–417
methods, 419
network applications, 417
Oracle user data, 424–425
unicast addresses, IPv6, 206
aggregatable global, 207–208
IPv4 in IPv6, 208–209
link-local, 207
site-local, 207
Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD), 230
UNIX, RIP daemon, 167
unshielded copper cables, 323
unshielded twisted-pair cables (UTP cables), 320,
324
unspecified bit rate (UBR), 121
UplinkFast, 228–229
upstream bandwidth, cable modems, 371
uptime
availability, 31
reliability, 30
usability
documenting, 462
technical goals, 55
User Datagram Protocol. See UDP
User History Collection group, RMON2, 311
users
communities, 96
documenting designs, 463
Klamath Paper Products WAN, 391
LANs design example, 347–348
remote access device, 374–375
securing services, 286–287
traffic flow, 95–96
utilization, 36
existing networks, 78–81
performance, 36–38
UTP cables (unshielded twisted-pair cables), 320,
324
V
variable-length subnet masking (VLSM), 198, 204
variance
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), 245
load sharing, 148
measurements, 86
VDSL (Very-High-Bit-Rate DSL), 373
transmission delays

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