simple structure of cross-functional teams. Imai also suggests cross-functional
activities through teams as this extends TQC activities horizontally and breaks
departmental barriers. TOM Peters like Deming is wary of bureaucracy. He says
that structure kills and urges radical reduction in layers of management and ratio
of non-supervisors to supervisors. He also suggests redeployment of excess sup-
port staff to line functions. People can be retrained and will contribute effectively
if transferred to the line function rather than being shunted into non-productive
staff jobs that promote sluggishness and inefficiency. Ishikawa’s suggestion of
forming cross-functional committees selected from senior managers somehow
smacks of hierarchical bias. It may be acceptable in Japanese culture but many
may view it as being against the true spirit of TQM philosophy. Furthermore, his
idea of setting up different project teams and a separate secretariat to give admin-
istrative support to the committee is likely to promote bureaucracy and perhaps
encourage two parallel power centres within the organization.
1. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis (Madras: Productivity and Quality Publishing, 1992),
2. Ibid, p. ix.
3. Akira Sueno, Entrepreneur and Gentleman, Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1981), p. 93.
4. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. ix.
5. Philip B. Crosby, Quality Is Free (New York: Penguin Books, 1980), p. 6.
6. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 27.
7. Kaoru Ishikawa, What Is Quality Control? The Japanese Way (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985),
pp. 25, 112.
8. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 6.
9. Gregory B. Hutchins, Introduction to Quality (Singapore: Maxwell Macmillan International
Publishing Group, 1991), p. 252.
10. Tom Peters, Thriving on Chaos (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988), p. 83.
11. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 76.
12. Masaaki Imai, Kaizen (Singapore: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1991), p. 46.
13. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 76.
14. Masaaki Imai, Kaizen, p. 48.
15. Kaoru Ishikawa, What Is Quality Control? The Japanese Way, p. 112.
16. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 404.
17. Ibid, p. 43.
18. Philip B. Crosby, Quality Without Tears (New York: Penguin Books, 1985), pp. 66–68.
19. Masaaki Imai, Kaizen, p. 41.
20. Ibid, p.25.
21. J. M. Juran, Managerial Breakthrough (NewYork: McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 15–17.
22. Philip B. Crosby, Quality Is Free, p. 2.
23. Ibid, p. 109.
24. A. V. Feigenbaum, Total Quality Control, Engineering and Management (New York: McGraw-
Hill, 1961), p. 13.
25. Philip B. Crosby, Quality Is Free, p. 15.
26. W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis, p. 124.
27. Ibid, p. 121.
28. Philip B. Crosby, Quality Is Free, pp. 21–34.
29. J. M. Juran, Juran on Quality by Design (NewYork: The Free Press, 1992), pp. 2–43.
SYNOPSIS OF PHILOSOPHY, CONCEPTS AND IMPLEMENTATION PRINCIPLES 63