Tools, Techniques and Strategic Enablers
The chapters of Part III of this book will give the readers an overview of the various
tools, techniques and strategic enablers that would help the management not only
in the implementation of TQM but also help in instilling a new work ethics and cul-
ture that would sustain the gains. Managers need to judiciously select different tools
and enablers to suit their unique operational and business needs and circumstances.
The simple and elementary tools for problem solving, described in Chapter 10, help
to narrow down the possible line of action, identify the root causes, and often solve
problems or find solutions without resorting to advanced or high-tech methods.
The list of tools is not exhaustive; readers may find few other elementary tools
referred in other books. Some essential elementary statistical tools or techniques
like data collection, stratification, etc. is not included in this chapter.
Dr Karou Ishikawa was the first consultant to advocate the use of certain judgmen-
tal and analytical tools christened as the Seven QC tools (Chapter 11) and he
described these tools as indispensable for total quality control. However over the
years several renowned consultants/practitioners have modified the list of Seven
QC Tools, some even call it as ‘The Seven Statistical Tools’. The list included by
Massaki Imai in his book Kaizen
seems to be the most popular viz. (1) Pareto dia-
grams (2) Cause and effect diagram (3) Histograms (4) Control charts (5) Scatter dia-
gram (6) Graphs (7) Check Sheets.
Chapter 12 discusses certain management tools and techniques meant for use by top
and senior management to tackle managerial problems and issues concerning plan-
ning, design, operating, marketing and other management areas.
The last section of this part (Chapter 13) gives overview of certain important
enablers that help the management to reorient its policies and systems towards a
work-culture that will ensure total quality in all facets of its operations. Certification
against ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 have almost become a business imperative, ISO
9001 certificate is an obligatory requirement for exports to Europe, and because of
rising awareness and stringent norms of environment preservation many overseas
organizations are insisting on ISO 14001 certificate. Further, requirement of ISO
9001 is mandatory for Government of India’s tender or contracts, and certain selec-
tive domestic organizations. In some cases the ISO 14001 certificate has become a
pre-qualification criteria, and soon it may become a norm particularly with govern-
Overview of Deming Prize, Malcolm Baldrige Award, EFQM, CII-Exim Bank
Quality Award, etc. will give the readers a fair idea of gearing up the systems in
order to apply for the famous international awards. The readers will also get an
opportunity to have a synopsis of the Balance Score card, which is now being uti-
lized by many organizations as a going TQM enabler to achieve excellence. The
principles of Balance Score card have their roots in TQM philosophies.
The simple elementary tools and seven QC tools listed in Chapters 10 and 11 are
deceptively simple but benefits are manifold including change of culture from fire-
fighting mode to finding out the root cause of problem and thus enabling perma-
nent solution. The more one uses the tools more they become vibrant, powerful, and
give exciting results. These tools can be used at all levels—from senior managers to
ordinary employees. Almost all experts confirm that practice and institutionalized
use of the simple elementary tools along with Seven QC tools should be able to
solve 80 per cent to 85 per cent problems. Not using the elementary and Seven QC
tools as a regular working practice should be considered a critical lapse. Senior man-
agement should have no psychological barrier or ego to use these tools in problem
solving and decision-making. It is only then it will be possible to institutionalize the
use of these tools and techniques across the organization. Appropriate use of differ-
ent management tools and techniques will enhance system stability and efficacy.
Winning an international or national award is not only a prestigious recognition but
also a confirmation that the company is on the right track to achieve excellence.
1. Masaaki Imai, Kaizen, The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success (McGraw-Hill, 1991), pp. 239–40.