Chapter 3

Unconventional Fuels


This chapter is devoted to a discussion of the alternatives to conventional petrol and diesel fuels for the propulsion of road vehicles with internal-combustion engines. Attention is first given to raw materials other than crude oil that can either be used with very little processing (natural gas) or can be refined into useable fuels. The latter include other fossil deposits (oil sands and bitumen, oil and gas shales, coal), as well as various types of renewable energy crops. The world reserves of these sources, collectively, far exceed those of petroleum. The second part of the chapter examines the different fuels that can be derived from these raw materials. Internal combustion engines can be run on a variety ...

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