Chapter 7

Batteries and Supercapacitors for Use in Road Vehicles


The characteristics of the various battery chemistries that are being considered for road vehicles are reviewed, together with details of the required duty schedules. As the number of electrical functions that have to be supported in a vehicle continues to grow, it may be necessary to advance from 12-V to 48-V electrical systems and batteries with correspondingly higher voltages. Hybrid electric vehicles of all types impose challenging sets of demands on the battery that include operation at partial state-of-charge and acceptance of charge at very high rates. Meanwhile, battery electric vehicles need high specific energy and long deep-cycle-life. Although lead–acid batteries ...

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