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Transmission Electron Microscopy in Micro-nanoelectronics by Alain Claverie

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Chapter 8

In Situ Characterization Methods in Transmission Electron Microscopy

8.1. Introduction

In situ transmission electron microscopy” (in situ TEM) is a widely used term that easily enhances an experimental description. As an example, the use of a high-energy electron beam to irradiate a sample is often called an in situ TEM technique [KLI 00a, LIU 12a] while the claimed stimuli is in fact the medium used to obtain an image of the sample. One reason could be that in situ (from the Latin phrase for an image of the sample. One reason could be that in situ (from the Latin phrase for “in place” or more commonly “at the right place”) is also an international word, easy to understand and exactly pronounced alike by almost every TEM user in the world (unlike TEM that has at least two known forms in Europe: TEM and MET). In situ TEM is thus a continuously growing topic. From three occurrences per year in the 1980s (~1% of TEM papers), in situ TEM has reached more than 300 occurrences (~7% of TEM papers) per year since 20101.

The aim of this chapter is to give some explanations about in situ TEM mostly dedicated to the study of devices. It will try to be as exhaustive as possible. However, as a snapshot of a (quickly) growing topic, it will perhaps be obsolete in the next 10 years. This reminder is here to inform the reader that this chapter was written in the middle of 2012 with the results and instrumental breakthroughs of that year, which could perhaps be out of date when it is ...

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