Solution of the Transmission-Line Equations for Three-Conductor Lossy Lines
In this final chapter we determine the effect of line losses on the near- and far-end crosstalk voltages, and . There are two sources of the line loss:
1. The resistance of the line conductors
2. Losses in the surrounding dielectric medium, as in the case of the dielectric within a coaxial cable or the dielectric board of a PCB
We will find that the resistance of the line conductors begin to increase from their constant dc values to a rate of above a certain frequency where the conductor cross-sectional dimensions begin to become on the order of a few skin depths:
where f is the frequency of the currents on them, is the permeability of the conductors (which is generally assumed to be nonmagnetic and is therefore that of free space, ), and is the conductivity of copper, of which most conductors ...