4.5. FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER INSIDE PIPES
4.5A. Introduction and Dimensionless Numbers
In most situations involving a liquid or a gas in heat transfer, convective heat transfer usually occurs as well as conduction. In most industrial processes where heat transfer is occurring, heat is being transferred from one fluid through a solid wall to a second fluid. In Fig. 4.5-1 heat is being transferred from the hot flowing fluid to the cold flowing fluid. The temperature profile is shown.
Figure 4.5-1. Temperature profile for heat transfer by convection from one fluid to another
The velocity gradient, when the fluid is in turbulent flow, is very ...