10.1A. Introduction

Many chemical process materials and biological substances occur as mixtures of different components in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In order to separate or remove one or more of the components from its original mixture, it must be contacted with another phase. The two phases are brought into more or less intimate contact with each other so that a solute or solutes can diffuse from one to the other. The two bulk phases are usually only somewhat miscible in each other. The two-phase pair can be gas–liquid, gas–solid, liquid–liquid, or liquid–solid. During the contact of the two phases the components of the original mixture redistribute themselves between the two phases. The ...

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