12.5. SINGLE-STAGE LIQUID–LIQUID EXTRACTION PROCESSES
12.5A. Introduction to Extraction Processes
In order to separate one or more of the components in a mixture, the mixture is brought into contact with another phase. The two-phase pair can be gas–liquid, which was discussed in Chapter 10; vapor–liquid, which was covered in Chapter 11; liquid–liquid; or fluid–solid. In this section liquid–liquid extraction separation processes are considered first. Alternative terms for the same process are liquid extraction or solvent extraction.
In distillation, the liquid is partially vaporized to create another phase, which is a vapor. The separation of the components depends on the relative vapor pressures of the substances. The vapor and liquid phases ...