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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, Fifth Edition

Book Description

The Complete, Unified, Up-to-Date Guide to Transport and Separation–Fully Updated for Today’s Methods and Software Tools

 

Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, Fifth Edition, offers a unified and up-to-date treatment of momentum, heat, and mass transfer and separations processes. This edition–reorganized and modularized for better readability and to align with modern chemical engineering curricula–covers both fundamental principles and practical applications, and is a key resource for chemical engineering students and professionals alike.

 

This edition provides

  • New chapter objectives and summaries throughout
  • Better linkages between coverage of heat and mass transfer
  • More coverage of heat exchanger design
  • New problems based on emerging topics such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and green engineering
  • New instructor resources: additional homework problems, exam questions, problem-solving videos, computational projects, and more

Part 1 thoroughly covers the fundamental principles of transport phenomena, organized into three sections: fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and mass transfer.

 

Part 2 focuses on key separation processes, including absorption, stripping, humidification, filtration, membrane separation, gaseous membranes, distillation, liquid—liquid extraction, adsorption, ion exchange, crystallization and particle-size reduction, settling, sedimentation, centrifugation, leaching, evaporation, and drying.

 

The authors conclude with convenient appendices on the properties of water, compounds, foods, biological materials, pipes, tubes, and screens.

 

The companion website (trine.edu/transport5ed/) contains additional homework problems that incorporate today’s leading software, including Aspen/CHEMCAD, MATLAB, COMSOL, and Microsoft Excel.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface to the Fifth Edition
  8. About the Authors
  9. PART 1 TRANSPORT PROCESSES: MOMENTUM, HEAT, AND MASS
    1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Engineering Principles and Units
      1. 1.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 1.1 Classification of Transport Processes and Separation Processes (Unit Operations)
        1. 1.1A Introduction
        2. 1.1B Fundamental Transport Processes
        3. 1.1C Classification of Separation Processes
        4. 1.1D Arrangement in Parts 1 and 2
      3. 1.2 SI System of Basic Units Used in This Text and Other Systems
        1. 1.2A SI System of Units
        2. 1.2B CGS System of Units
        3. 1.2C English FPS System of Units
        4. 1.2D Dimensionally Homogeneous Equations and Consistent Units
      4. 1.3 Methods of Expressing Temperatures and Compositions
        1. 1.3A Temperature
        2. 1.3B Mole Units and Weight or Mass Units
        3. 1.3C Concentration Units for Liquids
      5. 1.4 Gas Laws and Vapor Pressure
        1. 1.4A Pressure
        2. 1.4B Ideal Gas Law
        3. 1.4C Ideal Gas Mixtures
        4. 1.4D Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point of Liquids
      6. 1.5 Conservation of Mass and Material Balances
        1. 1.5A Conservation of Mass
        2. 1.5B Simple Material Balances
        3. 1.5C Material Balances and Recycle
        4. 1.5D Material Balances and Chemical Reaction
      7. 1.6 Energy and Heat Units
        1. 1.6A Joule, Calorie, and Btu
        2. 1.6B Heat Capacity
        3. 1.6C Latent Heat and Steam Tables
        4. 1.6D Heat of Reaction
      8. 1.7 Conservation of Energy and Heat Balances
        1. 1.7A Conservation of Energy
        2. 1.7B Heat Balances
      9. 1.8 Numerical Methods for Integration
        1. 1.8A Introduction and Graphical Integration
        2. 1.8B Numerical Integration and Simpson’s Rule
      10. 1.9 Chapter Summary
    2. Chapter 2 Introduction to Fluids and Fluid Statics
      1. 2.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Fluid Statics
        1. 2.2A Force, Units, and Dimensions
        2. 2.2B Pressure in a Fluid
        3. 2.2C Head of a Fluid
        4. 2.2D Devices to Measure Pressure and Pressure Differences
      4. 2.3 Chapter Summary
    3. Chapter 3 Fluid Properties and Fluid Flows
      1. 3.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 3.1 Viscosity of Fluids
        1. 3.1A Newton’s Law of Viscosity
        2. 3.1B Momentum Transfer in a Fluid
        3. 3.1C Viscosities of Newtonian Fluids
      3. 3.2 Types of Fluid Flow and Reynolds Number
        1. 3.2A Introduction and Types of Fluid Flow
        2. 3.2B Laminar and Turbulent Flow
        3. 3.2C Reynolds Number
      4. 3.3 Chapter Summary
    4. Chapter 4 Overall Mass, Energy, and Momentum Balances
      1. 4.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 4.1 Overall Mass Balance and Continuity Equation
        1. 4.1A Introduction and Simple Mass Balances
        2. 4.1B Control Volume for Balances
        3. 4.1C Overall Mass-Balance Equation
        4. 4.1D Average Velocity to Use in Overall Mass Balance
      3. 4.2 Overall Energy Balance
        1. 4.2A Introduction
        2. 4.2B Derivation of Overall Energy-Balance Equation
        3. 4.2C Overall Energy Balance for a Steady-State Flow System
        4. 4.2D Kinetic-Energy Velocity Correction Factor α
        5. 4.2E Applications of the Overall Energy-Balance Equation
        6. 4.2F Overall Mechanical-Energy Balance
        7. 4.2G Bernoulli Equation for Mechanical-Energy Balance
      4. 4.3 Overall Momentum Balance
        1. 4.3A Derivation of the General Equation
        2. 4.3B Overall Momentum Balance in a Flow System in One Direction
        3. 4.3C Overall Momentum Balance in Two Directions
        4. 4.3D Overall Momentum Balance for a Free Jet Striking a Fixed Vane
      5. 4.4 Shell Momentum Balance and Velocity Profile in Laminar Flow
        1. 4.4A Introduction
        2. 4.4B Shell Momentum Balance Inside a Pipe
        3. 4.4C Shell Momentum Balance for Falling Film
      6. 4.5 Chapter Summary
    5. Chapter 5 Incompressible and Compressible Flows in Pipes
      1. 5.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 5.1 Design Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Pipes
        1. 5.1A Velocity Profiles in Pipes
        2. 5.1B Pressure Drop and Friction Loss in Laminar Flow
        3. 5.1C Pressure Drop and Friction Factor in Turbulent Flow
        4. 5.1D Pressure Drop and Friction Factor in the Flow of Gases
        5. 5.1E Effect of Heat Transfer on the Friction Factor
        6. 5.1F Friction Losses in Expansion, Contraction, and Pipe Fittings
        7. 5.1G Friction Loss in Noncircular Conduits
        8. 5.1H Entrance Section of a Pipe
        9. 5.1I Selection of Pipe Sizes
      3. 5.2 Compressible Flow of Gases
        1. 5.2A Introduction and Basic Equation for Flow in Pipes
        2. 5.2B Isothermal Compressible Flow
        3. 5.2C Adiabatic Compressible Flow
      4. 5.3 Measuring the Flow of Fluids
        1. 5.3A Pitot Tube
        2. 5.3B Venturi Meter
        3. 5.3C Orifice Meter
        4. 5.3D Flow-Nozzle Meter
        5. 5.3E Variable-Area Flow Meters (Rotameters)
        6. 5.3F Other Types of Flow Meters
        7. 5.3G Flow in Open Channels and Weirs
      5. 5.4 Chapter Summary
    6. Chapter 6 Flows in Packed and Fluidized Beds
      1. 6.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 6.1 Flow Past Immersed Objects
        1. 6.1A Definition of Drag Coefficient for Flow Past Immersed Objects
        2. 6.1B Flow Past a Sphere, Long Cylinder, and Disk
      3. 6.2 Flow in Packed Beds
      4. 6.3 Flow in Fluidized Beds
      5. 6.4 Chapter Summary
    7. Chapter 7 Pumps, Compressors, and Agitation Equipment
      1. 7.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 7.1 Pumps and Gas-Moving Equipment
        1. 7.1A Introduction
        2. 7.1B Pumps
        3. 7.1C Gas-Moving Machinery
        4. 7.1D Equations for Compression of Gases
      3. 7.2 Agitation, Mixing of Fluids, and Power Requirements
        1. 7.2A Purposes of Agitation
        2. 7.2B Equipment for Agitation
        3. 7.2C Flow Patterns in Agitation
        4. 7.2D Typical “Standard” Design of a Turbine
        5. 7.2E Power Used in Agitated Vessels
        6. 7.2F Agitator Scale-Up
        7. 7.2G Mixing Times of Miscible Liquids
        8. 7.2H Flow Number and Circulation Rate in Agitation
        9. 7.2I Special Agitation Systems
        10. 7.2J Mixing of Powders, Viscous Materials, and Pastes
      4. 7.3 Chapter Summary
    8. Chapter 8 Differential Equations of Fluid Flow
      1. 8.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 8.1 Differential Equations of Continuity
        1. 8.1A Introduction
        2. 8.1B Types of Time Derivatives and Vector Notation
        3. 8.1C Differential Equation of Continuity
      3. 8.2 Differential Equations of Momentum Transfer or Motion
        1. 8.2A Derivation of Equations of Momentum Transfer
        2. 8.2B Equations of Motion for Newtonian Fluids with Varying Density and Viscosity
        3. 8.2C Equations of Motion for Newtonian Fluids with Constant Density and Viscosity
      4. 8.3 Use of Differential Equations of Continuity and Motion
        1. 8.3A Introduction
        2. 8.3B Differential Equations of Continuity and Motion for Flow Between Parallel Plates
        3. 8.3C Differential Equations of Continuity and Motion for Flow in Stationary and Rotating Cylinders
      5. 8.4 Chapter Summary
    9. Chapter 9 Non-Newtonian Fluids
      1. 9.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 9.1 Non-Newtonian Fluids
        1. 9.1A Types of Non-Newtonian Fluids
        2. 9.1B Time-Independent Fluids
        3. 9.1C Time-Dependent Fluids
        4. 9.1D Viscoelastic Fluids
        5. 9.1E Laminar Flow of Time-Independent Non-Newtonian Fluids
      3. 9.2 Friction Losses for Non-Newtonian Fluids
        1. 9.2A Friction Losses in Contractions, Expansions, and Fittings in Laminar Flow
        2. 9.2B Turbulent Flow and Generalized Friction Factors
      4. 9.3 Velocity Profiles for Non-Newtonian Fluids
      5. 9.4 Determination of Flow Properties of Non-Newtonian Fluids Using a Rotational Viscometer
      6. 9.5 Power Requirements in Agitation and Mixing of Non-Newtonian Fluids
      7. 9.6 Chapter Summary
    10. Chapter 10 Potential Flow and Creeping Flow
      1. 10.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 10.1 Other Methods for Solution of Differential Equations of Motion
        1. 10.1A Introduction
      3. 10.2 Stream Function
      4. 10.3 Differential Equations of Motion for Ideal Fluids (Inviscid Flow)
      5. 10.4 Potential Flow and Velocity Potential
      6. 10.5 Differential Equations of Motion for Creeping Flow
      7. 10.6 Chapter Summary
    11. Chapter 11 Boundary-Layer and Turbulent Flow
      1. 11.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 11.1 Boundary-Layer Flow
        1. 11.1A Boundary-Layer Flow
        2. 11.1B Boundary-Layer Separation and the Formation of Wakes
        3. 11.1C Laminar Flow and Boundary-Layer Theory
      3. 11.2 Turbulent Flow
        1. 11.2A Nature and Intensity of Turbulence
        2. 11.2B Turbulent Shear or Reynolds Stresses
        3. 11.2C Prandtl Mixing Length
        4. 11.2D Universal Velocity Distribution in Turbulent Flow
      4. 11.3 Turbulent Boundary-Layer Analysis
        1. 11.3A Integral Momentum Balance for Boundary-Layer Analysis
      5. 11.4 Chapter Summary
    12. Chapter 12 Introduction to Heat Transfer
      1. 12.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 12.1 Energy and Heat Units
        1. 12.1A Joule, Calorie, and Btu
        2. 12.1B Heat Capacity
        3. 12.1C Latent Heat and Steam Tables
        4. 12.1D Heat of Reaction
      3. 12.2 Conservation of Energy and Heat Balances
        1. 12.2A Conservation of Energy
        2. 12.2B Heat Balances
      4. 12.3 Conduction and Thermal Conductivity
        1. 12.3A Introduction to Steady-State Heat Transfer
        2. 12.3B Conduction as a Basic Mechanism of Heat Transfer
        3. 12.3C Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
        4. 12.3D Thermal Conductivity
      5. 12.4 Convection
        1. 12.4A Convection as a Basic Mechanism of Heat Transfer
        2. 12.4B Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient
      6. 12.5 Radiation
        1. 12.5A Radiation, a Basic Mechanism of Heat Transfer
        2. 12.5B Radiation to a Small Object from Its Surroundings
      7. 12.6 Heat Transfer with Multiple Mechanisms/Materials
        1. 12.6A Plane Walls in Series
        2. 12.6B Conduction Through Materials in Parallel
        3. 12.6C Combined Radiation and Convection Heat Transfer
      8. 12.7 Chapter Summary
    13. Chapter 13 Steady-State Conduction
      1. 13.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 13.1 Conduction Heat Transfer
        1. 13.1A Conduction Through a Flat Slab or Wall (Some Review of Chapter 12)
        2. 13.1B Conduction Through a Hollow Cylinder
        3. 13.1C Multilayer Cylinders
        4. 13.1D Conduction Through a Hollow Sphere
      3. 13.2 Conduction Through Solids in Series or Parallel with Convection
        1. 13.2A Combined Convection, Conduction, and Overall Coefficients
        2. 13.2B Log Mean Temperature Difference and Varying Temperature Drop
        3. 13.2C Critical Thickness of Insulation for a Cylinder
        4. 13.2D Contact Resistance at an Interface
      4. 13.3 Conduction with Internal Heat Generation
        1. 13.3A Conduction with Internal Heat Generation
      5. 13.4 Steady-State Conduction in Two Dimensions Using Shape Factors
        1. 13.4A Introduction and Graphical Method for Two-Dimensional Conduction
        2. 13.4B Shape Factors in Conduction
      6. 13.5 Numerical Methods for Steady-State Conduction in Two Dimensions
        1. 13.5A Analytical Equation for Conduction
        2. 13.5B Finite-Difference Numerical Methods
      7. 13.6 Chapter Summary
    14. Chapter 14 Principles of Unsteady-State Heat Transfer
      1. 14.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 14.1 Derivation of the Basic Equation
        1. 14.1A Introduction
        2. 14.1B Derivation of the Unsteady-State Conduction Equation
      3. 14.2 Simplified Case for Systems with Negligible Internal Resistance
        1. 14.2A Basic Equation
        2. 14.2B Equation for Different Geometries
        3. 14.2C Total Amount of Heat Transferred
      4. 14.3 Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in Various Geometries
        1. 14.3A Introduction and Analytical Methods
        2. 14.3B Unsteady-State Conduction in a Semi-infinite Solid
        3. 14.3C Unsteady-State Conduction in a Large Flat Plate
        4. 14.3D Unsteady-State Conduction in a Long Cylinder
        5. 14.3E Unsteady-State Conduction in a Sphere
        6. 14.3F Unsteady-State Conduction in Two- and Three-Dimensional Systems
        7. 14.3G Charts for Average Temperature in a Plate, Cylinder, and Sphere with Negligible Surface Resistance
      5. 14.4 Numerical Finite-Difference Methods for Unsteady-State Conduction
        1. 14.4A Unsteady-State Conduction in a Slab
        2. 14.4B Boundary Conditions for Numerical Method for a Slab
        3. 14.4C Other Numerical Methods for Unsteady-State Conduction
      6. 14.5 Chilling and Freezing of Food and Biological Materials
        1. 14.5A Introduction
        2. 14.5B Chilling of Food and Biological Materials
        3. 14.5C Freezing of Food and Biological Materials
      7. 14.6 Differential Equation of Energy Change
        1. 14.6A Introduction
        2. 14.6B Derivation of Differential Equation of Energy Change
        3. 14.6C Special Cases of the Equation of Energy Change
      8. 14.7 Chapter Summary
    15. Chapter 15 Introduction to Convection
      1. 15.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 15.1 Introduction and Dimensional Analysis in Heat Transfer
        1. 15.1A Introduction to Convection (Review)
        2. 15.1B Introduction to Dimensionless Groups
        3. 15.1C Buckingham Method
      3. 15.2 Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Heat Transfer
        1. 15.2A Laminar Flow and Boundary-Layer Theory in Heat Transfer
        2. 15.2B Approximate Integral Analysis of the Thermal Boundary Layer
        3. 15.2C Prandtl Mixing Length and Eddy Thermal Diffusivity
      4. 15.3 Forced Convection Heat Transfer Inside Pipes
        1. 15.3A Heat-Transfer Coefficient for Laminar Flow Inside a Pipe
        2. 15.3B Heat-Transfer Coefficient for Turbulent Flow Inside a Pipe
        3. 15.3C Heat-Transfer Coefficient for Transition Flow Inside a Pipe
        4. 15.3D Heat-Transfer Coefficient for Noncircular Conduits
        5. 15.3E Entrance-Region Effect on the Heat-Transfer Coefficient
        6. 15.3F Liquid-Metals Heat-Transfer Coefficient
      5. 15.4 Heat Transfer Outside Various Geometries in Forced Convection
        1. 15.4A Introduction
        2. 15.4B Flow Parallel to a Flat Plate
        3. 15.4C Cylinder with Axis Perpendicular to Flow
        4. 15.4D Flow Past a Single Sphere
        5. 15.4E Flow Past Banks of Tubes or Cylinders
        6. 15.4F Heat Transfer for Flow in Packed Beds
      6. 15.5 Natural Convection Heat Transfer
        1. 15.5A Introduction
        2. 15.5B Natural Convection from Various Geometries
      7. 15.6 Boiling and Condensation
        1. 15.6A Boiling
        2. 15.6B Condensation
      8. 15.7 Heat Transfer of Non-Newtonian Fluids
        1. 15.7A Introduction
        2. 15.7B Heat Transfer Inside Tubes
        3. 15.7C Natural Convection
      9. 15.8 Special Heat-Transfer Coefficients
        1. 15.8A Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessels
        2. 15.8B Scraped-Surface Heat Exchangers
        3. 15.8C Extended Surface or Finned Exchangers
      10. 15.9 Chapter Summary
    16. Chapter 16 Heat Exchangers
      1. 16.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 16.1 Types of Exchangers
      3. 16.2 Log-Mean-Temperature-Difference Correction Factors
      4. 16.3 Heat-Exchanger Effectiveness
      5. 16.4 Fouling Factors and Typical Overall U Values
      6. 16.5 Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger
      7. 16.6 Chapter Summary
    17. Chapter 17 Introduction to Radiation Heat Transfer
      1. 17.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 17.1 Introduction to Radiation Heat-Transfer Concepts
        1. 17.1A Introduction and Basic Equation for Radiation
        2. 17.1B Radiation to a Small Object from Its Surroundings
        3. 17.1C Effect of Radiation on the Temperature Measurement of a Gas
      3. 17.2 Basic and Advanced Radiation Heat-Transfer Principles
        1. 17.2A Introduction and Radiation Spectrum
        2. 17.2B Derivation of View Factors in Radiation for Various Geometries
        3. 17.2C View Factors When Surfaces Are Connected by Reradiating Walls
        4. 17.2D View Factors and Gray Bodies
        5. 17.2E Radiation in Absorbing Gases
      4. 17.3 Chapter Summary
    18. Chapter 18 Introduction to Mass Transfer
      1. 18.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 18.1 Introduction to Mass Transfer and Diffusion
        1. 18.1A Similarity of Mass, Heat, and Momentum Transfer Processes
        2. 18.1B Examples of Mass-Transfer Processes
        3. 18.1C Fick’s Law for Molecular Diffusion
        4. 18.1D General Case for Diffusion of Gases A and B plus Convection
      3. 18.2 Diffusion Coefficient
        1. 18.2A Diffusion Coefficients for Gases
        2. 18.2B Diffusion Coefficients for Liquids
        3. 18.2C Prediction of Diffusivities in Liquids
        4. 18.2D Prediction of Diffusivities of Electrolytes in Liquids
        5. 18.2E Diffusion of Biological Solutes in Liquids
      4. 18.3 Convective Mass Transfer
        1. 18.3A Convective Mass-Transfer Coefficient
      5. 18.4 Molecular Diffusion Plus Convection and Chemical Reaction
        1. 18.4A Different Types of Fluxes and Fick’s Law
        2. 18.4B Equation of Continuity for a Binary Mixture
        3. 18.4C Special Cases of the Equation of Continuity
      6. 18.5 Chapter Summary
    19. Chapter 19 Steady-State Mass Transfer
      1. 19.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 19.1 Molecular Diffusion in Gases
        1. 19.1A Equimolar Counterdiffusion in Gases
        2. 19.1B Special Case for A Diffusing Through Stagnant, Nondiffusing B
        3. 19.1C Diffusion Through a Varying Cross-Sectional Area
        4. 19.1D Multicomponent Diffusion of Gases
      3. 19.2 Molecular Diffusion in Liquids
        1. 19.2A Introduction
        2. 19.2B Equations for Diffusion in Liquids
      4. 19.3 Molecular Diffusion in Solids
        1. 19.3A Introduction and Types of Diffusion in Solids
        2. 19.3B Diffusion in Solids Following Fick’s Law
        3. 19.3C Diffusion in Porous Solids That Depends on Structure
      5. 19.4 Diffusion of Gases in Porous Solids and Capillaries
        1. 19.4A Introduction
        2. 19.4B Knudsen Diffusion of Gases
        3. 19.4C Molecular Diffusion of Gases
        4. 19.4D Transition-Region Diffusion of Gases
        5. 19.4E Flux Ratios for Diffusion of Gases in Capillaries
        6. 19.4F Diffusion of Gases in Porous Solids
      6. 19.5 Diffusion in Biological Gels
      7. 19.6 Special Cases of the General Diffusion Equation at Steady State
        1. 19.6A Special Cases of the General Diffusion Equation at Steady State
      8. 19.7 Numerical Methods for Steady-State Molecular Diffusion in Two Dimensions
        1. 19.7A Derivation of Equations for Numerical Methods
        2. 19.7B Equations for Special Boundary Conditions for Numerical Method
      9. 19.8 Chapter Summary
    20. Chapter 20 Unsteady-State Mass Transfer
      1. 20.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 20.1 Unsteady-State Diffusion
        1. 20.1A Derivation of a Basic Equation
        2. 20.1B Diffusion in a Flat Plate with Negligible Surface Resistance
        3. 20.1C Unsteady-State Diffusion in Various Geometries
      3. 20.2 Unsteady-State Diffusion and Reaction in a Semi-Infinite Medium
        1. 20.2A Unsteady-State Diffusion and Reaction in a Semi-Infinite Medium
      4. 20.3 Numerical Methods for Unsteady-State Molecular Diffusion
        1. 20.3A Introduction
        2. 20.3B Unsteady-State Numerical Methods for Diffusion
        3. 20.3C Boundary Conditions for Numerical Methods for a Slab
      5. 20.4 Chapter Summary
    21. Chapter 21 Convective Mass Transfer
      1. 21.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 21.1 Convective Mass Transfer
        1. 21.1A Introduction to Convective Mass Transfer
        2. 21.1B Types of Mass-Transfer Coefficients
        3. 21.1C Mass-Transfer Coefficients for the General Case of A and B Diffusing and Convective Flow Using Film Theory
        4. 21.1D Mass-Transfer Coefficients under High Flux Conditions
        5. 21.1E Methods for Experimentally Determining Mass-Transfer Coefficients
      3. 21.2 Dimensional Analysis in Mass Transfer
        1. 21.2A Introduction
        2. 21.2B Dimensional Analysis for Convective Mass Transfer
      4. 21.3 Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Various Geometries
        1. 21.3A Dimensionless Numbers Used to Correlate Data
        2. 21.3B Analogies among Mass, Heat, and Momentum Transfer
        3. 21.3C Derivation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients in Laminar Flow
        4. 21.3D Mass Transfer for Flow Inside Pipes
        5. 21.3E Mass Transfer for Flow Outside Solid Surfaces
      5. 21.4 Mass Transfer to Suspensions of Small Particles
        1. 21.4A Introduction
        2. 21.4B Equations for Mass Transfer to Small Particles
      6. 21.5 Models for Mass-Transfer Coefficients
        1. 21.5A Laminar Flow and Boundary-Layer Theory in Mass Transfer
        2. 21.5B Prandtl Mixing Length and Turbulent Eddy Mass Diffusivity
        3. 21.5C Models for Mass-Transfer Coefficients
      7. 21.6 Chapter Summary
  10. PART 2 SEPARATION PROCESS PRINCIPLES
    1. Chapter 22 Absorption and Stripping
      1. 22.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 22.1 Equilibrium and Mass Transfer Between Phases
        1. 22.1A Phase Rule and Equilibrium
        2. 22.1B Gas–Liquid Equilibrium
        3. 22.1C Single-Stage Equilibrium Contact
        4. 22.1D Single-Stage Equilibrium Contact for a Gas–Liquid System
        5. 22.1E Countercurrent Multiple-Contact Stages
        6. 22.1F Analytical Equations for Countercurrent Stage Contact
        7. 22.1G Introduction and Equilibrium Relations
        8. 22.1H Concentration Profiles in Interphase Mass Transfer
        9. 22.1I Mass Transfer Using Film Mass-Transfer Coefficients and Interface Concentrations
        10. 22.1J Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients and Driving Forces
      3. 22.2 Introduction to Absorption
        1. 22.2A Absorption
        2. 22.2B Equipment for Absorption and Distillation
      4. 22.3 Pressure Drop and Flooding in Packed Towers
      5. 22.4 Design of Plate Absorption Towers
      6. 22.5 Design of Packed Towers for Absorption
        1. 22.5A Introduction to Design of Packed Towers for Absorption
        2. 22.5B Simplified Design Methods for Absorption of Dilute Gas Mixtures in Packed Towers
        3. 22.5C Design of Packed Towers Using Transfer Units
      7. 22.6 Efficiency of Random-Packed and Structured Packed Towers
        1. 22.6A Calculating the Efficiency of Random-Packed and Structured Packed Towers
        2. 22.6B Estimation of Efficiencies of Tray and Packed Towers
      8. 22.7 Absorption of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Towers
      9. 22.8 Estimation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Packed Towers
        1. 22.8A Experimental Determination of Film Coefficients
        2. 22.8B Correlations for Film Coefficients
        3. 22.8C Predicting Mass-Transfer Film Coefficients
      10. 22.9 Heat Effects and Temperature Variations in Absorption
        1. 22.9A Heat Effects in Absorption
        2. 22.9B Simplified Design Method
      11. 22.10 Chapter Summary
    2. Chapter 23 Humidification Processes
      1. 23.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 23.1 Vapor Pressure of Water and Humidity
        1. 23.1A Vapor Pressure of Water
        2. 23.1B Humidity and a Humidity Chart
        3. 23.1C Adiabatic Saturation Temperatures
        4. 23.1D Wet Bulb Temperature
      3. 23.2 Introduction and Types of Equipment for Humidification
      4. 23.3 Theory and Calculations for Cooling-Water Towers
        1. 23.3A Theory and Calculations for Cooling-Water Towers
        2. 23.3B Design of Water-Cooling Tower Using Film Mass-Transfer Coefficients
        3. 23.3C Design of Water-Cooling Tower Using Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients
        4. 23.3D Minimum Value of Air Flow
        5. 23.3E Design of Water-Cooling Tower Using the Height of a Transfer Unit
        6. 23.3F Temperature and Humidity of an Air Stream in a Tower
        7. 23.3G Dehumidification Tower
      5. 23.4 Chapter Summary
    3. Chapter 24 Filtration and Membrane Separation Processes (Liquid–Liquid or Solid–Liquid Phase)
      1. 24.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 24.1 Introduction to Dead-End Filtration
        1. 24.1A Introduction
        2. 24.1B Types of Filtration Equipment
        3. 24.1C Filter Media and Filter Aids
      3. 24.2 Basic Theory of Filtration
        1. 24.2A Introduction to the Basic Theory of Filtration
        2. 24.2B Filtration Equations for Constant-Pressure Filtration
        3. 24.2C Filtration Equations for Constant-Rate Filtration
      4. 24.3 Membrane Separations
        1. 24.3A Introduction
        2. 24.3B Classification of Membrane Processes
      5. 24.4 Microfiltration Membrane Processes
        1. 24.4A Introduction
        2. 24.4B Models for Microfiltration
      6. 24.5 Ultrafiltration Membrane Processes
        1. 24.5A Introduction
        2. 24.5B Types of Equipment for Ultrafiltration
        3. 24.5C Flux Equations for Ultrafiltration
        4. 24.5D Effects of Processing Variables in Ultrafiltration
      7. 24.6 Reverse-Osmosis Membrane Processes
        1. 24.6A Introduction
        2. 24.6B Flux Equations for Reverse Osmosis
        3. 24.6C Effects of Operating Variables
        4. 24.6D Concentration Polarization in Reverse-Osmosis Diffusion Model
        5. 24.6E Permeability Constants for Reverse-Osmosis Membranes
        6. 24.6F Types of Equipment for Reverse Osmosis
        7. 24.6G Complete-Mixing Model for Reverse Osmosis
      8. 24.7 Dialysis
        1. 24.7A Series Resistances in Membrane Processes
        2. 24.7B Dialysis Processes
        3. 24.7C Types of Equipment for Dialysis
        4. 24.7D Hemodialysis in an Artificial Kidney
      9. 24.8 Chapter Summary
    4. Chapter 25 Gaseous Membrane Systems
      1. 25.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 25.1 Gas Permeation
        1. 25.1A Series Resistances in Membrane Processes
        2. 25.1B Types of Membranes and Permeabilities for Separation of Gases
        3. 25.1C Types of Equipment for Gas-Permeation Membrane Processes
        4. 25.1D Introduction to Types of Flow in Gas Permeation
      3. 25.2 Complete-Mixing Model for Gas Separation by Membranes
        1. 25.2A Basic Equations Used
        2. 25.2B Solution of Equations for Design of a Complete-Mixing Case
        3. 25.2C Minimum Concentration of Reject Stream
      4. 25.3 Complete-Mixing Model for Multicomponent Mixtures
        1. 25.3A Derivation of Equations
        2. 25.3B Iteration Solution Procedure for Multicomponent Mixtures
      5. 25.4 Cross-Flow Model for Gas Separation by Membranes
        1. 25.4A Derivation of the Basic Equations
        2. 25.4B Procedure for Design of Cross-Flow Case
      6. 25.5 Derivation of Equations for Countercurrent and Cocurrent Flow for Gas Separation by Membranes
        1. 25.5A Concentration Gradients in Membranes
        2. 25.5B Derivation of Equations for Countercurrent Flow in Dense-Phase Symmetric Membranes
        3. 25.5C Solution of Countercurrent Flow Equations in Dense-Phase Symmetric Membranes
        4. 25.5D Derivation of Equations for Countercurrent Flow in Asymmetric Membranes
        5. 25.5E Derivation of Equations for Cocurrent Flow in Asymmetric Membranes
        6. 25.5F Effects of Processing Variables on Gas Separation
      7. 25.6 Derivation of Finite-Difference Numerical Method for Asymmetric Membranes
        1. 25.6A Countercurrent Flow
        2. 25.6B Short-Cut Numerical Method
        3. 25.6C Use of a Spreadsheet for the Finite-Difference Numerical Method
        4. 25.6D Calculation of Pressure-Drop Effects on Permeation
      8. 25.7 Chapter Summary
    5. Chapter 26 Distillation
      1. 26.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 26.1 Equilibrium Relations Between Phases
        1. 26.1A Phase Rule and Raoult’s Law
        2. 26.1B Boiling-Point Diagrams and x-y Plots
      3. 26.2 Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages
        1. 26.2A Equipment for Distillation
        2. 26.2B Single-Stage Equilibrium Contact for Vapor–Liquid System
      4. 26.3 Simple Distillation Methods
        1. 26.3A Introduction
        2. 26.3B Relative Volatility of Vapor–Liquid Systems
        3. 26.3C Equilibrium or Flash Distillation
        4. 26.3D Simple Batch or Differential Distillation
        5. 26.3E Simple Steam Distillation
      5. 26.4 Binary Distillation with Reflux Using the McCabe–Thiele and Lewis Methods
        1. 26.4A Introduction to Distillation with Reflux
        2. 26.4B McCabe–Thiele Method of Calculation for the Number of Theoretical Stages
        3. 26.4C Total and Minimum Reflux Ratio for McCabe–Thiele Method
        4. 26.4D Special Cases for Rectification Using the McCabe–Thiele Method
      6. 26.5 Tray Efficiencies
        1. 26.5A Tray Efficiencies
        2. 26.5B Types of Tray Efficiencies
        3. 26.5C Relationship Between Tray Efficiencies
      7. 26.6 Flooding Velocity and Diameter of Tray Towers Plus Simple Calculations for Reboiler and Condenser Duties
        1. 26.6A Flooding Velocity and Diameter of Tray Towers
        2. 26.6B Condenser and Reboiler Duties Using the McCabe–Thiele Method
      8. 26.7 Fractional Distillation Using the Enthalpy–Concentration Method
        1. 26.7A Enthalpy–Concentration Data
        2. 26.7B Distillation in the Enriching Section of a Tower
        3. 26.7C Distillation in the Stripping Section of a Tower
      9. 26.8 Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures
        1. 26.8A Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation
        2. 26.8B Equilibrium Data in Multicomponent Distillation
        3. 26.8C Boiling Point, Dew Point, and Flash Distillation
        4. 26.8D Key Components in Multicomponent Distillation
        5. 26.8E Total Reflux for Multicomponent Distillation
        6. 26.8F Shortcut Method for the Minimum Reflux Ratio for Multicomponent Distillation
        7. 26.8G Shortcut Method for Number of Stages at Operating Reflux Ratio
      10. 26.9 Chapter Summary
    6. Chapter 27 Liquid–Liquid Extraction
      1. 27.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 27.1 Introduction to Liquid–Liquid Extraction
        1. 27.1A Introduction to Extraction Processes
        2. 27.1B Equilibrium Relations in Extraction
      3. 27.2 Single-Stage Equilibrium Extraction
        1. 27.2A Single-Stage Equilibrium Extraction
      4. 27.3 Types of Equipment and Design for Liquid–Liquid Extraction
        1. 27.3A Introduction and Equipment Types
        2. 27.3B Mixer–Settlers for Extraction
        3. 27.3C Spray Extraction Towers
        4. 27.3D Packed Extraction Towers
        5. 27.3E Perforated-Plate (Sieve-Tray) Extraction Towers
        6. 27.3F Pulsed Packed and Sieve-Tray Towers
        7. 27.3G Mechanically Agitated Extraction Towers
      5. 27.4 Continuous Multistage Countercurrent Extraction
        1. 27.4A Introduction
        2. 27.4B Continuous Multistage Countercurrent Extraction
        3. 27.4C Countercurrent-Stage Extraction with Immiscible Liquids
        4. 27.4D Design of Towers for Extraction
        5. 27.4E Design of Packed Towers for Extraction Using Mass-Transfer Coefficients
      6. 27.5 Chapter Summary
    7. Chapter 28 Adsorption and Ion Exchange
      1. 28.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 28.1 Introduction to Adsorption Processes
        1. 28.1A Introduction
        2. 28.1B Physical Properties of Adsorbents
        3. 28.1C Equilibrium Relations for Adsorbents
      3. 28.2 Batch Adsorption
      4. 28.3 Design of Fixed-Bed Adsorption Columns
        1. 28.3A Introduction and Concentration Profiles
        2. 28.3B Breakthrough Concentration Curve
        3. 28.3C Mass-Transfer Zone
        4. 28.3D Capacity of Column and Scale-Up Design Method
        5. 28.3E Basic Models for Predicting Adsorption
        6. 28.3F Processing Variables and Adsorption Cycles
      5. 28.4 Ion-Exchange Processes
        1. 28.4A Introduction and Ion-Exchange Materials
        2. 28.4B Equilibrium Relations in Ion Exchange
        3. 28.4C Use of Equilibrium Relations and Relative-Molar-Selectivity Coefficients
        4. 28.4D Concentration Profiles and Breakthrough Curves
        5. 28.4E Capacity of Columns and Scale-Up Design Method
      6. 28.5 Chapter Summary
    8. Chapter 29 Crystallization and Particle Size Reduction
      1. 29.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 29.1 Introduction to Crystallization
        1. 29.1A Crystallization and Types of Crystals
        2. 29.1B Equilibrium Solubility in Crystallization
        3. 29.1C Yields, Material, and Energy Balances in Crystallization
        4. 29.1D Equipment for Crystallization
      3. 29.2 Crystallization Theory
        1. 29.2A Introduction
        2. 29.2B Nucleation Theories
        3. 29.2C Rate of Crystal Growth and the ΔL Law
        4. 29.2D Particle Size Distribution of Crystals
        5. 29.2E Model for Mixed Suspension–Mixed Product Removal Crystallizer
      4. 29.3 Mechanical Size Reduction
        1. 29.3A Introduction
        2. 29.3B Particle Size Measurement
        3. 29.3C Energy and Power Required in Size Reduction
        4. 29.3D Equipment for Particle Size Reduction
      5. 29.4 Chapter Summary
    9. Chapter 30 Settling, Sedimentation, and Centrifugation
      1. 30.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 30.1 Settling and Sedimentation in Particle–Fluid Separation
        1. 30.1A Introduction
        2. 30.1B Theory of Particle Movement Through a Fluid
        3. 30.1C Hindered Settling
        4. 30.1D Wall Effect on Free Settling
        5. 30.1E Differential Settling and Separation of Solids in Classification
        6. 30.1F Sedimentation and Thickening
        7. 30.1G Equipment for Settling and Sedimentation
      3. 30.2 Centrifugal Separation Processes
        1. 30.2A Introduction
        2. 30.2B Forces Developed in Centrifugal Separation
        3. 30.2C Equations for Rates of Settling in Centrifuges
        4. 30.2D Centrifuge Equipment for Sedimentation
        5. 30.2E Centrifugal Filtration
        6. 30.2F Gas–Solid Cyclone Separators
      4. 30.3 Chapter Summary
    10. Chapter 31 Leaching
      1. 31.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 31.1 Introduction and Equipment for Liquid–Solid Leaching
        1. 31.1A Leaching Processes
        2. 31.1B Preparation of Solids for Leaching
        3. 31.1C Rates of Leaching
        4. 31.1D Types of Equipment for Leaching
      3. 31.2 Equilibrium Relations and Single-Stage Leaching
        1. 31.2A Equilibrium Relations in Leaching
        2. 31.2B Single-Stage Leaching
      4. 31.3 Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
        1. 31.3A Introduction and Operating Line for Countercurrent Leaching
        2. 31.3B Variable Underflow in Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
        3. 31.3C Constant Underflow in Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
      5. 31.4 Chapter Summary
    11. Chapter 32 Evaporation
      1. 32.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 32.1 Introduction
        1. 32.1A Purpose
        2. 32.1B Processing Factors
      3. 32.2 Types of Evaporation Equipment and Operation Methods
        1. 32.2A General Types of Evaporators
        2. 32.2B Methods of Evaporator Operations
      4. 32.3 Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients in Evaporators
      5. 32.4 Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators
        1. 32.4A Heat and Material Balances for Evaporators
        2. 32.4B Effects of Processing Variables on Evaporator Operation
        3. 32.4C Boiling-Point Rise of Solutions
        4. 32.4D Enthalpy–Concentration Charts of Solutions
      6. 32.5 Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
        1. 32.5A Introduction
        2. 32.5B Temperature Drops and Capacity of Multiple-Effect Evaporators
        3. 32.5C Calculations for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
        4. 32.5D Step-by-Step Calculation Methods for Triple-Effect Evaporators
      7. 32.6 Condensers for Evaporators
        1. 32.6A Introduction
        2. 32.6B Surface Condensers
        3. 32.6C Direct-Contact Condensers
      8. 32.7 Evaporation of Biological Materials
        1. 32.7A Introduction and Properties of Biological Materials
        2. 32.7B Fruit Juices
        3. 32.7C Sugar Solutions
        4. 32.7D Paper-Pulp Waste Liquors
      9. 32.8 Evaporation Using Vapor Recompression
        1. 32.8A Introduction
        2. 32.8B Mechanical Vapor-Recompression Evaporator
        3. 32.8C Thermal Vapor-Recompression Evaporator
      10. 32.9 Chapter Summary
    12. Chapter 33 Drying
      1. 33.0 Chapter Objectives
      2. 33.1 Introduction and Methods of Drying
        1. 33.1A Purposes of Drying
      3. 33.2 Equipment for Drying
        1. 33.2A Tray Dryer
        2. 33.2B Vacuum-Shelf Indirect Dryers
        3. 33.2C Continuous Tunnel Dryers
        4. 33.2D Rotary Dryers
        5. 33.2E Drum Dryers
        6. 33.2F Spray Dryers
        7. 33.2G Drying Crops and Grains
      4. 33.3 Vapor Pressure of Water and Humidity
        1. 33.3A Vapor Pressure of Water
        2. 33.3B Humidity and Humidity Chart
        3. 33.3C Adiabatic Saturation Temperatures
        4. 33.3D Wet Bulb Temperature
      5. 33.4 Equilibrium Moisture Content of Materials
        1. 33.4A Introduction
        2. 33.4B Experimental Data of Equilibrium Moisture Content for Inorganic and Biological Materials
        3. 33.4C Bound and Unbound Water in Solids
        4. 33.4D Free and Equilibrium Moisture of a Substance
      6. 33.5 Rate-of-Drying Curves
        1. 33.5A Introduction and Experimental Methods
        2. 33.5B Rate of Drying Curves for Constant-Drying Conditions
        3. 33.5C Drying in the Constant-Rate Period
        4. 33.5D Drying in the Falling-Rate Period
        5. 33.5E Moisture Movements in Solids During Drying in the Falling-Rate Period
      7. 33.6 Calculation Methods for a Constant-Rate Drying Period
        1. 33.6A Method for Using an Experimental Drying Curve
        2. 33.6B Method Using Predicted Transfer Coefficients for Constant-Rate Period
        3. 33.6C Effect of Process Variables on a Constant-Rate Period
      8. 33.7 Calculation Methods for the Falling-Rate Drying Period
        1. 33.7A Method Using Numerical Integration
        2. 33.7B Calculation Methods for Special Cases in Falling-Rate Region
      9. 33.8 Combined Convection, Radiation, and Conduction Heat Transfer in the Constant-Rate Period
        1. 33.8A Introduction
        2. 33.8B Derivation of the Equation for Convection, Conduction, and Radiation
      10. 33.9 Drying in the Falling-Rate Period by Diffusion and Capillary Flow
        1. 33.9A Introduction
        2. 33.9B Liquid Diffusion of Moisture in Drying
        3. 33.9C Capillary Movement of Moisture in Drying
        4. 33.9D Comparison of Liquid Diffusion and Capillary Flow
      11. 33.10 Equations for Various Types of Dryers
        1. 33.10A Through-Circulation Drying in Packed Beds
        2. 33.10B Tray Drying with Varying Air Conditions
        3. 33.10C Material and Heat Balances for Continuous Dryers
        4. 33.10D Continuous Countercurrent Drying
      12. 33.11 Freeze-Drying of Biological Materials
        1. 33.11A Introduction
        2. 33.11B Derivation of Equations for Freeze-Drying
      13. 33.12 Unsteady-State Thermal Processing and Sterilization of Biological Materials
        1. 33.12A Introduction
        2. 33.12B Thermal Death-Rate Kinetics of Microorganisms
        3. 33.12C Determination of Thermal Process Time for Sterilization
        4. 33.12D Sterilization Methods Using Other Design Criteria
        5. 33.12E Pasteurization
        6. 33.12F Effects of Thermal Processing on Food Constituents
      14. 33.13 Chapter Summary
  11. PART 3 APPENDIXES
    1. Appendix A.1 Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors
    2. Appendix A.2 Physical Properties of Water
    3. Appendix A.3 Physical Properties of Inorganic and Organic Compounds
    4. Appendix A.4 Physical Properties of Foods and Biological Materials
    5. Appendix A.5 Properties of Pipes, Tubes, and Screens
    6. Appendix A.6 Lennard-Jones Potentials as Determined from Viscosity Data
  12. Notation
  13. Index