2 LTE‐D2D Communication for Power Distribution Grid: Resource Allocation for Time‐Critical Applications

Leonardo D. Oliveira1, Taufik Abrao2, and Ekram Hossain3

1 Department of Telecommunications and Control Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Londrina State University (DEEL‐UEL), Parana state, Brazil

3 Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

2.1 Introduction

A brief concept of the smart city consists of using the technology to improve the urban infrastructure, to optimize the use of resources and services to turn the urban center a better place to live. Part of this infrastructure, the smart grid (SG) is the evolution of the power distribution grid to the smart city. There exist bidirectional flows of information and energy, and improving the communication in the distribution grid can directly improve the “intelligence” of the city, saving energy and turning it into a low‐carbon zone (Deakin and Reid, 2016). In the power system, there are several communication requirements for different services, such as measurement and automation. The last one demands an independent network for security purposes, and it is the focus of this chapter.

When dealing with automation, the power system communications traditionally used protocols not compatible with rigorous latency and reliability requirements, such as Modbus, DNP3 (Distributed Network Protocol), ...

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